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Weyler’s campaign of Lanao

1891 - Gov. Valeriano Weyler’s campaign of Lanao

Source: Lim ... p. 80


Parrado as governor

1893 – Parrado becomes governor and commander of Fort of Pilar.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Marawi campaign

1894 – Parrado takes command of Marawi campaign where Voluntarios receive highest awards for bravery and coolness under fire:  they make final assault on Marawi and stay for reconstruction of fort and city; Calle Gen. Parrado, Calle Marawi and Calle Voluntarios criss-cross Calle Corcuera and Calle Felip II; leading citizens sign petition for Pueblo Parrado.

p. 68

Longest continuous campaign participated in by Voluntarios lasting one year (March 1894 to March 1895) under General parrado, whose history chronicles the most glowing, most detailed account of Voluntarios Moros de Sibuguey y Cotabato; citations, promotions, medfals and recommendations.

Source: Ibid, p. 81  

Filipino revollution spreads to Zamboanga

1898 – revolution spreads to Zamboanga. Vicente Alvarez named military governor of Zamboanga-Basilan sector by Malolos government, with rank of brigadier general; takes Fort Pilar and ousts AFIS (armed forces of imperial Spain), under Gen. Diego de los Rios, who flees to Iloilo and surrenders to General Delgado [Note: Personally saw Gen. De los Rios’s portrait on wall of Iloilo Museum, Iloilo city]; last bastion of Spain in the Philippines.

Source: Ibid, p. 69

Outbreak of revolution

1898, March – On this date Filipino revolution started in Zamboanga. Alvarez was one of the leaders.

Source: Mandate … Gowing, P.

Organization of Filipino troops

1899, January – Gen. Montero armed two companies, the Deportados, headed by Melanio Calixto, and another group headed by Juan Ramos.

Source: Annual Report of the War Department, 1901: Pettit

Alvarez reverses rle of Zamboanga Voluntarios

1899 - Brig. General Vicente Alvarez, son of legendary Alejo, reversed the role of the Voluntarios by taking Fort Pilar, defeating Gen. de los Rios in Zamboanga; Melanio Calixto the hero of Mulu-Muluan successfully sea-jacked thirteen Spanish warhsips off Basilan Strait, led them to Mulu-Muluan, stripped them of arms and ammunition, but without touching their gold.


Evacuation Cotabato

1899, January – Gov. de los Rios ordered the evacuation of the Spanish forces from Cotabato.

13 Spanish gunboats arrival

1899, April 7 – Thirteen gunboats and a merchant ship arrived Zamboanga from Isabela de Basilan.

Source: Apuntes Hostoricos … 1921: Saavedra, Balbino

13 Spanish gunboats captured

1899, April 7 – Calixto and Arquiza capturedSpanish gunboats and merchant ship in Basilan straight.

Source: Mindanao Life magazine, vol. I, Zamboanga city, October, 1965: Arevalo, Vicente 

13 Spanish gunboats captured

1899, April 8 – In the morning of this date, Calixto, et al, captured the thirteen gunboats and a merchant ship of Spain, which arrived the day before from Basilan.  These were taken to Masinloc; in the afternoon the gunboats and merchant ship were taken to the revolutionary headquarters in Las Mercedes. 

A few days later, the Americans took the abandoned ships to Manila.

Source: Apuntes … : Saavedra, Balbino

Alvarez Appointment

1899, May 4 – Malolos congress appointed V. Alvarez as head of the revolutionary government of Zamboanga.

Source: Gen. Alvarez’s Notes: Enriquez, F

Altillery brought to Tetuan\Fort Attacked

1899, May 10 – Gen. Alvarez brought the artillery to Tetuan from Las Mercedes.  At 10 p.m. the attack began, but Alvarez failed to enter Zamboanga city.

Gen. Montero was wounded and other officers.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra, B.

Zamboanga city attacked

1899, May – Ramos attacked the town and burnt it.

Source: ARWD, 1901: Pettit

White flag raised by Spaniards from fort

1899, May 11 – At dawn Spaniards raised white flag from the trenches, and asked for peace parley.  Conference held on board Leon XIII  [Transatlantic Puerto Rico?] between Rios and Filipino rebels.  For the safe return of  Filipino commissioners, Col. Olvis was held as “hostage” in Tetuan.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra

Hostilities break out again

1899, May 12 – In the evening, hostilities between Filipinos and Spaniards broke out again, because of the failure of the peace parley.  Again, Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid

Spanish troops rescued in Jolo

1899, May 16 – Capt. Pratt at the head of the two American infantry battalions rescued beleaguered Spanish troops from Jolo.

Spanish white flag

1899, May 17 – Rios raised white flag from the fort of Pilar.

Rios surrenders Zamboanga

1899, May 18 – Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga.  Afterwards a great banquet was given to the Filipino commissioners on board the Leon XIII.  Meanwhile, the embarkation of Spanish forces was going on.

In the afternoon, Rios with all his forces left for Manila on board Leon XIII, and then for Spain.

Spanish flag had been lowered from Fort Pilar. As Rios and his men left, Filipino rebels fired or gave gun alutes as farewell.

N. Arquiza was appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra, B.

Spanish leave Zamboanga

1899, May 18 – Spaniards left Zamboanga.

Source: Gen. Alvarez’s Notes: Enriquez, F

Spanish evacuated

1899, late May – Leon XIII sailed away with the Spanish soldiers that had occupied the garrison in Zamboanga.

Source: ARWD, 1901: Pettit

Zamboanga burnt

Zamboanga had been burnt, except for two streets along the waterfront.  Alvarez first headquarters was in Santa Maria, then he moved to Mercedes because of the feqr that he would be bombarded by the U.S. gunboats.

Source: Ibid

 Alvarez appointed presidente

 1899, late May – Alvarez was chosen as the president of the Republid of Zamboanga, general commanding the first district of Mindanao.

Source: Ibid

 Calixto promoted

 1899, late May – Calixto was promoted to general and second in command.

Source: Ibid

 Midel’s betrayal

 1899, November – After Midel murdered Calixto, he boarded the U.S.S. Castine then anchored n Zamboanga’s harbot and reported what he had accomplished to Commander Very; then he raised the U.S. flag at the fort, which was a signal for Commander Very to land his Marines.

Source: Ibid

Mandi’s U.S. alliance

1899, November – Moro Datu Mandi offered his assistance to the Americans.

Source: Ibid

Mandi’s houses burnt

1899, November – Gen. Alvarez burnt the houses of Datu Mandi.

Source: Ibid

Alvarez vs. Mandi

1899, November – Datu Mandi fought Alvarez in Curuan, killing a number of insurrectos and capturing a lot of their women and children.  Mandi returned the women and children to Zamboanga.  Alvarez observed the landing of women and children from the church’s tower, but Mandi gave him no opportunity to shoot.

Source: Ibid

Midel as presidente

1899, November – After Commander Very landed in Zamboanga, he appointed Midel as presidente provincial.

Source: Ibid

Midel turns over arms to U.S.

1899, November – Midel gathered the arms in Zamboanga and turned them over to the American forces.

Source: Ibid

Two companies of U.S. 23rd infantry arrive Zamboanga from Jolo

1899, November – Two U.S. gunboats were sent to Jolo to get assistance there; thus, two companies of the 23rd infantry were went to Zamboanga from Jolo to garrison the place.  Infantry under Capt. Nichols.

Source: Ibid

Datu Mandi boards the Manila

1899, November 14 – An hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the Manila anchored at Malanipa.

Note: For half a year Zamboanga was blockaded from the sea by United States Castine. Blockade was effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga], and secured allegiance from Visayan inhabitants --- Christians --- of the hinterlands, and from the tribe of Samal Lauts --- Mohammedans.

Source: Potter

Capture of Zamboanga led Bates’s expedition to Mindanao possible

“It was the capture of Zamboanga by the Manila and the Castine --- Thursday, November 16, 1899 --- that made possible the Bates expedition to and about Mindanao …”

Source: Ibid

Dates from different sources on the surrender of Zamboanga

Nov. 16, 1899} Midel surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans – F. Enriquez

             } Occupation Day - Pettit 

             } Alvarez and “his Gang Left Zamboanga” – P. Gowing

More troops to Zamboanga and Basilan

1899, December 5 – Under Col. Pettit the 31st U.S. Volunteer infantry arrived in Zamboanga.

Fifty men of Company D, 31st inf. Under Capt. Cabell on board the Chunuca took Isabela de Basilan without resistance.

Source: Mandate … Gowing, P

Cabelle appointment, Dec. 1899: Cabelle appointed governor of Isabela de Basilan.

Source: ibid

23rd infantry returns to Jolo

1899, December – The two companies of the 23rd inf. returned to Jolo.

Source: Ibid

Moros control Paran-Paran

1899, December – Moros were in complete control of Paran-Paran, and would have killed all the Filipinos if the Americans had delayed occupation of it.

Source: Ibid

Occupation of Cotabato

1899, December – Cotabato was occupied next by the Americans.  The 31st infantry was led by Maj. Bret.

Source: Ibid

U.S. forces defeats Voluntarios in Lunzuran-Boalan sector

American forces defeated Voluntarios in Lunzuran-Boalan sector; Alvarez fled, joined Misamis forces of Gen. Capistrano; captured by US forces on Mt. aloran, Misamis Occidental; imprisoned in Manila with Aguinaldo and together, swore allegiance to U.S.A.


Americans put up schools, etc.

1900, January – Schools and a customs-house were established in that order; then a collector of internal revenue was appointed.

Source: Gowing

Cable laid

1900, February 28 - Cable was laid from Tucuran to Zamboanga, and a few days later from Jolo to Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid

Alvarez and Capistrano captured by Americans

1900, March - Generals Alvarez and Capistrano were captured by the Americans in Aloran, Oroquieta, Misamis Oriental.

Source: Notes: Francisco Enriquez

Imprisonment of Alvarez

1900, March – Alvarez was imprisoned with Quezon, and Generals Ricarte, Trias, Montenegro, etc. in Manila.

Source: Ibid

Zamboanga from district to department

1900, April – The district of Zamboanga became a department under Brig. Gen. Kobbe.

Source: Mandate …: P. Gowing

Pettit ceased command

1900, April – When the district of Zamboanga was made into a department under Brig. Gen. Kobbe, Col. Pettit ceased to command the district.         

Source: Ibid

31st U.S. Volunteer Inf. replaced

1900, May 14 – The 31st U.S. volunteer inf. was concentrated in Zamboanga, and it left the department on board Hancock. It was replaced by the companies of the 10th inf. 5th Cavalry, and the 23rd infantry.

Source: Ibid

Midel relieved

1901, February – Midel asked to be relieved of his post.

Source: Ibid

Capture of Aguinaldo

1901, March 23 – Funston captured Aguinaldo.

Meeting for unification of the pueblos

1901, March 30 to October 11, 1901 – Meeting to unify the five pueblos into the municipality of which was to be called Zamboanga.

Zamboanga into a municipality

1901, June – the completion of the province of Zamboanga into a single municipality.

Source: Mandate … : P. Gowing

Alvarez pledges allegiance to U.S.

1901, August 2 – Gen. Alvarez pledged allegiance to the U.S.A.

Source: R. Arevalo

Other leader moved to Lanao

1901, June [conflicting dates?]– After the capture of Alvarez, the other insurgent leader Deloso moved to Lanao.

Source: appendix 6. Report of Brig. Gen. G. Davies, commanding, 7th separate brigade, August 1, 1902

Alvarez released

1902, August 2 – Gen. Alvarez was released by the Americans.

Source: Zamboanga’s forgotten heroes: V. Arevalo

Alvarez returned to Zamboanga

1903, January 26 – Gen. Alvarez returned to Zamboanga

Source: Ibid

Alvarez appointed officer

1904, October 29 – Gen. Alvarez was appointed PC officer.

Alvarez appointment of first deputy

1914, April 1 – After the abolition of the American regime, Gen. Alvarez was appointed first deputy Civil governor of Dapitan and Judge of the tribunal ward.

Source: Zamboanga’s Forgotten Hero: V. Arevalo

Department took over Moro provinces

1914-1920 – The department of Mindanao and Sulu took over the Moro province.

1920 – With the abolition of the department, the bureau of non-Christian tribes under the department of the interiror came into being.

Death of Alvarez

1942, November 4 – Gen. Alvarez died in Labason, Zamboanga del Norte, of illness.  Eighty years old.


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