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Historical Dates


Founding and Opening of Colegio Seminario de San Ignacio


1590 – Sedeño, S.J. founded the Colegio Manila (San Ignacio); colegio formally opened in 1559; endowment given by Marquis Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa.

Source: “Critic at Large,” Starweek, p. 6: Cruz, Isagani

 Jesuits to Mindanao

 1596 – Cabildo of Manila assigned Jesuits to Mindanao.

Source: Roots … Lim

 Confirmation of Jesuits’ assignment to Mindanao

 1597 – Gov. Tello confirms assignment in the King’s name.  First missionary to Butuan, Valerio Ledesma. First missionaries to Dapitan, Juan Lopez, Febricio Sarsali, Francisco de Otazo: based in Cebu and Bohol.

Source: Ibid, p.6

 Spanish fleet captures Ternate

 1606 – Spanish fleet captured Ternate and brought defeated sultan to Manila. This was prelude an alliance between rulters of Maguindanao, Sulu, and Ternate against Spain.

Unknown source

 Ternate under Dutch protection

 1607 – Ternate came under Dutch protection.  The Banda islands, including Amboina which was a dependency of Ternate, was completely subdued by 1623.

Unknown source

 Rajah Bungsu assumes sultanate, marries

 1610 – Rajah Bungsu assumed sultatnate as Muwallil Wasit Bungsu; marries Nayac, daughter of Saragan of Pulong Bato.

Source: Ibid, p.6

 Jesuits to Dapitan

 1629 – Pedro de Arce, bishop of Cebu entrusts Dapitan to the Jesuits.

Source: Ibid, p.6

 Jesuits first residence

 1631 – Jesuits establish first residence in Dapitan; Pedro Gutierrez as first rector.

Source: Ibid; p.6

 Order to establish fort and garrison in Zamboanga

 1634 – Juan Cerezo de Salamanca orders the establishment of fort and garrison in Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid, p.6

 Chavez’s arrival in Zamboanga

 1635 – April 6: Capt. Juan de Chavez arrives in 300 peninsular and 1,000 Visayans infantry regulars.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 San Jose Cornerstone

 1635, June 23: Cornerstone of La Fuerza Real de San Jose laid.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Conversion of Basilan and Pangutaran datus; Baptism of Naya’s two sons

 1635 – Ondol, Boto, and Quindinga, chiefs of Taguima (Basilan), converted by Francisco Angel and Nicolas Deñe; rebel chief Tabaco slain by Alonso Tenorio; Basilan reduced…

 Pangutaran island converted by Lopez; later for lack of priests, reverted to Islam.

 Two sons of Bungsu and Nayac return to Samboangan, baptized, inherited lower half of peninsula, given command of standing milita of volunteers, the first as commanding general, the second son as Bn. Cdr. Of 800 regulares.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Defeat of Pirate Tagal

 1636, December 21 - Tagal and his pirate fleet were vanquished off Punta Flechas; he was “Kudarat’s admiral.  Tagal was slain, over 100 captives released, and 300 captured.  Spanish forces were led by Sgt. Maj. Nicolas Gonzales.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

 Defeat of Kudarat

 1637 - Kudarat defeated in Ilihan by Governor-General Corcuera with former Kudarat’s ally Sofocan.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

 Corcuera lay siege on Jolo’s sultan Bungsu

 1638 - Corcuera “punishes” Rajah Bungsu, sultan of Jolo.  Suffered heaviest casualties ever, with five officers dead in action and five others dead from dysentery; eighty-seven Spaniards in all.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

 Voluntarios suffer only defeat

 1639 - Voluntarios suffered only recorded defeat under overall command of General Almonte.    

 Combes assigned to Zamboanga

 1645 – Combes assigned to Samboangan, missionizes Baliwan, Bocot, Malandi, Recodo, Siocon.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Bungsu and Spain Peace Treaty

 1646 – Rajah Bungsu signed treaty of peace with Spain; exempted from tribute and quintas for Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Revolt of Palapag

 1649  – Sumoroy revolt of Palapag spreads to Camarines and south to Siocon; Gen. Roxas appealed for help from the Voluntarios of Samboangan.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Alonso changes Roxa’s battle plans; Felipe Macombong is killed

 1650 – Alonso Macombong threatened to abandon if Roxas didn’t change battle plans, which the latter did, and Voluntarios assaulted Sumoroy’s headquarters and quelled revolt.

 Felipe Macombong dies of war wounds on way to Manila, is embalmed and given military burial inside Fort San Jose.

Source: Ibid, p.7

 Lopez and Montiel murdered

 1655 – Lopez and Montiel murdered by Balatamay in Buayan, Mindanao.

Source: Ibid

 Cogseng takes Formosa

 1662 – Cogseng took Formosa from the Dutch, sent letter to De Lara who ordered total pullout of SFIS (spiritual forces of Imperial Spain) and AFIS (armed forces of Imperial Spain) from Samboangan.

Sources: Ibid, p.7

 Pullout from Fort San Jose in Samboangan

 1663, Jan. 7 – Pullout of fort for Manila, leaving Alonso Macombong in command without artillery; charged to defend the fort “in the king’s name against all enemies,” but he refuses to against Kudarat.”

 Curtain of history fell for 56 years; 24 years later, William Dampier, British consair took a peek behind the curtain, met nobody except hoofprints and ruined fort.

 Bereft of priests, all 6,000 converts revert to Islam.

Source: Ibid, p. 7 & 8

 Lopez and Montiel killed

 1655 – Lopez and Montiel killed by Balatamay in Buayen [Buhayen].

Source: Ibid, p.7

Re-occupation of Samboangan

1719 – Reoccupation by order of Gov. Fernando Bustillo y Bustamante: Gen. Gregorio Padilla y Escalante, governor and commander of Fort Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Zaragosa; construction engineer, Juan de Sicarra; reconstruction of fort on same old foundation.

Source: Ibid, p.67.

Datu Balasi attacks Fort Pilar

1720 – Datu Balasi with 3,000 Maranaos, Tausogs, and Buayens lay siege on fort, repulsed three months later with the arrival of 1,090 Mindanaos allied to Spaniards.

Source: Ibid, p.67

New Converts

1721 – Jesuits made new converts in Zamboanga, 600 baptized.

Source: Ibid, p.67

Pedro Estrada Bad-de appointed Cdr. of Lutaos

1733 – Pedro Estrada Bad-de, son of Alonso Macombong, appointed Cdr. of Lutaos and Subanons with rank of general; his wife baptized (with daughter Dominga) co-ruler with Pedro Bad-de.

 Source: Ibid, p.67

First official intermarriage

1744 or thereabouts – Inocencio Atilano marries Dominga and lifts Zamboanga’s mestizage from biological to the level of sacramental and official marriage; first and only on record. Atilano’s of Zamboanga start with five children.

Source: Ibid, p.67

Alimudin baptized by denied by Jesuits

1750, April 29 – Alimudin baptized by Fernando I in Paniqui, Tarlac; Jesuits deny validity of his baptism; cause his imprisonment.

Source: Ibid, p.67

M. Alvarez married Gregoria

1764 or thereabouts – Manuel Alvarez marries Grgoria, daughter of Inocencio and Dominga; Alvarezes of Zamboanga start with four children.

Source: Ibid, p.68

Alvarez to Jolo

1768 – M. Alvarez goes to Jolo to wean Sultan Alimudin and Ruma Bichara from British; receives Royal welcome from Sultana [?], holds intimate converse withy royalty, amazes Spaniards with nightly classes in dancing and singing.  Score: wonon diplomacy, lost on conversion of Muslims.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Jesuits exiled

1768 – Jesuits exiled from the Philippines “due to church politics in Rome.” In 1859, by virtue of Royal Degree in 1852, Jesuits returned to the Philippines.

Source: “Critic at Large”:Cruz. Starweek, July 16, 1994, p.6

British repulsed

1979 [sic]- British attack Fort Pilar; was repulsed, returned home.

Source: Roots … Lim: p. 68

Fort La Caldera

1784 – Fort La Caldera built as protection from raids.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Claveria humbles Balingingi pirates

1848 - Governor General Narciso Claveria humbled the “fiercest pirates of the South,” the Balangingis; medals and citations given.  Claveria called the Voluntarios “briosos Zamboangueños” (spirited, valorous) and “denodados soldados” (brave, galant) soldiers.

Source: Ibid, p. 80

1851 – Urbiztondo conquers Jolo

Urbiztondo besieged Jolo from the sea and burnt it, famous friar Pascual Ibanez, O.S.A. killed, while leading his contingentof Cebu voluntarios.

300 Voluntarios cited; left without garrison, Jolo resurges strong.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

1860 – Zamboanga made politico-military capital

of Mindanao divided into six districts: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Misamis, Surigao, and Basilan.

Source: Ibid, p.68

Cavite mutineers over-powered by Zamboanga Voluntarios

1872 - Cavite mutineers imprisoned in Fort Pilar overpowered garrison and staged riot.  Valuntarios saved Zamboanga with counter attack which wiped out mutineers in Rio Hondo mangroves: Alejo Alvarez and Florencio Enriquez cited; Zamboanga named “La Leal y Valiente Villa.”

Source: Ibid, p. 80

Malcampo conquers Jolo

1876 – Malcampo conquers, fortifies and beautifies Jolo; 400 Voluntarios cited:  Alejo Alvarez, interpreter and chief of Voluntarios, wounded in assault of Cota parrang, age 50; together with interperter Ortuoste, Alejo signs peace treaty between Spain and the Sultan.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Dispute betwee Moro leaders

1885, Feb. 15 – Spanish government sends V. Alvarez to Jolo to settle the dispute between Sultan Kiram II and Datu Julkarnain.

Sources: F. Enriquez & P. Gowing

Gov. Terrero’s campaign of Cotabato

1886 to 1887 Gov. Emilio Terroro’s campaign of Cotabato

Source: Lim ... p. 80





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