Note on 'Notes': Would like to share these simple notes I wrote down while engaged in research on Zamboanga for my Zamboanga historical novels, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War," and 'The Siege of Fort Pillar.' Took these notes decades ago when the idea came to my mind to write about my hometown Zamboanga. By the way, the research took longer than the writing of the first novel, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War.'
Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916: Part 3of 3
U.S. Manila left for Cotabato
P 229 = Manila left Zamboanga for Cotabato December 10, 1899, Sunday evening.
Zamboanga fiesta – bullfight
Author and Manila crew liked Zamboanga “only a little less than we liked Balabac.”
Attended fiestas both secular and religious.
Saw bullfight or two.
“… bore manful parts in battles of flowers with mestiza bells.”
Special treatment for traitors Midel and Mandi
P 553 = Midel and Mandi were permitted to have armed escorts of 10 men and to pass outposts at anytime.
Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit
Insurgents at war with each other
P 451 = War between two insurgent factions broke out sooner than Gen. Otis anticipated and “no provisions had been made to garrison the place. The town was without material importance and the troops at hand were needed elsewhere.”
On Nov. 20, 1899, a cablegram from Iloilo stated that “one of the insurgent factions had secured the city and turned it over to Captain Very …”
The said insurgent faction “passed over to the naval authorities a good deal of war material, and upon arrival of troops an additional 1 79 rifles, a Nordenfeldt, and one breech-loading cannon were turned over.
Order soon restored in the city; only hostile force was a band of Tagalogs, about 80, which had taken refuge in the mountains.
Earlier on the same day of November 20, the other faction [likely Alvarez] had “made demonstrations against the city and that Captain Very had called for the troops upon the Jolo station, from which one company had been sent him.”
Warring factions – no humanitarian sentiments
P 451 – Warring of the insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war.
Most lives taken through “some form of assassination and very few in open combat.”
Midel surrenders Zamboanga
When Gen. Alvarez left secretly for Basilan, Midel surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans, Nov. 16, 1899.
Source: Interview, p. 3: F. Enriquez
Midel surrenders Zamboanga to the Americans
With Gen. Alvarez departure, Midel “unofficial mayor of Tetuan, together with his anti-Alvarez troops, “surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans on November 16, 1899.”
Source: Mindanao Life, p 28: Arevalo
Miedel turns over Fort Pilar to U.S.
P 220-23 = At first Miedel was indignant in yielding the “Fort to Ltc John Sherman whose men Miedel’s outnumbered three to one. But Commander Very’s “cleverest performance” in oratory finally convinced Miedle to yield the Fort about an hour after the “assault of Miedel’s forces (“comrades of Zamboanga and Tetuan,” said Very).
Taking of Zamboanga – “short of operá bouffe.”
224 – “Such was the taking of Zamboanga, an affair short of operá bouffe in form but one whose consequences were important to the American cause.”
Effectivity date of second Philippine commission
September 1, 1900, gradual transfer of the government from military to civil. Military government continued executive functions, but his power greatly diminished as commission began exercising legislative power under authority of the President.
Source: Mandate...,p 40: Gowing
Miedel appointed presidente
P 553 = After Commander Very landed his men, a meeting was held at commanding general’s quarters, and Isidoro Midel was appointed presidente provincial. He held office until February 1901.
He asked to be relieved and never received a cent of salary during his time.
Immediately, Miedel gathered arms and turned them over to the Americans.
Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit
Moros’ arms left outside town gate
P 331 = “When the American soldiers entered [Zamboanga], the Spanish guard left the garrison, and the Spanish population and the priests followed. The Americans found outside the town gates a large barbed wire bird cage, where the Moros had been compelled to leave their arms before entering the town at night, to avoid an uprising.”
Source: The Spell of …: Anderson
Gen. Pershing left for Basilan to confer with Alvarez
Pershing then a captain left for Basilan to “confer” with Gen. Alvarez for the latter’s surrender.
Alvarez promised to go to Zamboanga on Wednesday; instead he left for Zamboanga del Norte, then to Misamis Occidental where he joined with Gen. Capistrano.
The two continued the fight.
Source: Interview, p.3: F. Enriquez
Alvarez flees to Misamis
P 6 = Alvarez didn’t resist anymore because he said they’d be fighting each other – Filipinos against Filipinos. He was later captured in Misamis with another rebel leader Capistrano.
Resistance to American sovereignty continued in Mindanao by the insurgents: Vicente Alvarez and Rufino Veloso, the former a native of Zamboanga, the latter from the island of Cebu or Leyte.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Friendly reception by Moros and Filipinos – U.S. occupation of Mindanao
Throughout December 1899 to early January 1900, troops of the 31st infantry, U.S. volunteers, occupied places along the western and southern coasts of Mindanao, including towns of Cotabato, Davao, Polloc, Mati, Parang-Parang and Banganga.
All places taken without resistance “for the troops ere given friendly reception by Moros and Christian Filipinos alike.”
P 331-32 = America first occupied region they “treated the Moros well and found them friendly.”
A Filipino presidente was appointed, a datu to head the Moros, and a Captain Chinese, as he was called, “to manage his people, who were mostly merchants and pearl fishers.”
“Mindanao was under military-civil government ...” In few years many “Moros were brought under control, and they became loyal Americans, although they had always been bitter enemies of the Filipinos and the Spaniards. They say they found the Americans brave, and have not been lied by them, and so they seek our protection.
Source: The Spell of ...: Anderson
Alvarez and Capistrano were captured in Aloran, Mis. Occidental, March 1900.
Americans promised his family that nothing would happen to him.
Brought to Oroquieta where he as followed by his family the next day.
Later brought to Manila --- imprisoned with M. Quezon, Mabini, Ricarte, etc.
Source: Interv., p.3: F. Enriquez
Affectivity of elevated district/Military department of Mindanao and Jolo
Ten days after Brig. Gen. William A. Koppe, U.S.V. arrived in Zamboanga on April 14, to relieve Gen. Bates, the district was elevated into military department of Mindanao and Jolo, under newly organized U.S. army division of the Philippines.
Source: Gowing, p 38
Moro wars not printed in Manila papers/general ignorance
News of the Moro wars was not printed in the Manila papers, thus there was a general ignorance “on the state of affairs.”
Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p. 5: Lietz
Moro atrocities reported abroad/news reaches Philippines occasionally
News of atrocities by Moros faithfully reported in Singapore, Hongkong, and even in London. News reached the islands through an occasional English paper long after the event.
Source: Lietz, p.5
Chinese speaks Oxford English
pp 223-4 = Author meets C. Wung (an exchanger of money) as he turned off Zamboanga’s main street, Calle Real toward the pier.
Was surprised at the Chinese speaking Oxford English.
Source: Sailing the ...: Potter
P 553 = Natives had to be fed.
Country was destitute.
Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit
Marines relieved late in November/Isabela de Basilan occupied by U.S.
Late in November, 1899, Marines at Fort del Pilar relieved by two companies of the 23rd inf., U.S. army, from Jolo. In turn on December 5, 1899, by the U.S. 31st Volunteer inf. which arrived in transports City of Peking and Brutus under command of Col. James S. Pettit.
These latter troops took up defensive positions in ruins of Zamboanga town.
Detail of 50 men sent to occupy Isabela de Basilan which Spaniards had used as naval base.
In short time public order restored.
Source: Mandate … p 25: Gowing
Rony Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios
pp 1-2 = Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios. Rios was on board Leon XIII. He wasn’t caught in Manila Bay; he was the last governor general. No encounter at the Fort because although Alvarez captured the Fort he didn’t occupy it.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Bautista invents death of Pettit
p. 2 = Bautista invented the death of Col. Pettit in Bualan. “There’s a report by Pettit about 1902 about the governor general. If he was killed sometime in 1900, how could he have written the report? I got these reports from the [US] embassy.”
p.4 = Pettit’s name appeared on June 30, 1902 as Major J.S. Pettit, director general, in charge of civil affairs, Zamboanga, 1902. ”If he was killed in 1900, how can he become a member of the role of officers [of 1902’?”
Bautista invents participation of Nuño in rebellion
p.7 = Bautista, R. “invented” the story that Nuño helped Alvarez and even loaned him his vintas.
Source: Interv. Navarro
U.S. Army’s verses
p.349 = At Gen. Pershing’s dinner, in Zamboanga, some verses recited showed army officers’ feeling about their life in Philippines. A stanza runs:
“What is it makes us fret so hard
In this benighted land?
It isn’t lack of courage
And it isn’t lack of `sand.’
It isn’t fear of Moros
Or Bagobos from the hills ------
It’s the many great discomforts
And the many, many ills.”
Source: The spell of ...:Anderson
U.S. spent more money in PI revolution
P 113 – “With the capture of Aguinaldo, the back bone of the revolutionary movement collapsed, largely ending the three-year revolt that had cost the United States the lives of over 1,000 of the 120,000 troops it had been forced to commit; more men and money than the whole Spanish-American War had taken.”
Source: The Philippines Fight …:Archer
Moro coastal towns occupation peaceful except interior towns
P 452 = U.S. occupation of Moro coastal towns peaceful, except when Americans moved to the interior of the islands.
Even insurgents were attacked by Moros.
“It was only when the Americans moved into the interior that they were attacked, and they were then attacked as the Spaniards had been attacked, and as the Tagalogs would have been attacked, because the native chief held them to be foreign intruders within their domains.”
Hostilities in Mindanao and Jolo nothing to do with the insurrection headed by Aguinaldo.
Acceptance of datus to Americans
“Among the datus who gladly accepted the proffered hand of friendship were: Datu Mandi of Zamboanga; Datu Piang of Cotabato; the latter’s son-in-law, Datu Ali; etc.”
Source: Mandate ... p. 37: Gowing
Moro leader clarifies Moro’s position against relationship with Christians
p. 347 = To Filipino leaders’ separation advocacy, Hadji Nangnui, who spoke himself as “a Samal,” made “the clearest statement of the Moro position”:
“The Secretary of War must look the matter in the face. We are a different race; we have different religion; we are Mohammedans. And if we should be given over to the Filipinos, how much more would they treat us badly, than they treated even the Spanish badly who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generations? How did they treat them? Think about it! Think twice. We far prefer to be in the hands of the Americans, who are father and mother to us now, than to be turned over to another people.” (applause.)
Source: The Spell of ... : Anderson
Moros object to be under Filipinos
p. 349 - To Filipinos’ leaders’ advocacy for separation, Datu Sacaluran gave this challenge:
“I am an old an. I do not want any more trouble. But if it should come to that, that we shall be given over to the Filipinos, I still would fight. (applause)
Peace in Zamboanga except during revolution
Always had peace except for seven or eight months of the “so-called Filipino Republic.”
Much robbing and killing; bloodshed; terror; no justice.
“Because of this the Moros were opposed to the Filipinos.”
Conflict between better class of Filipinos and revolutionists.
Source: Mandate ... p. 25, : Gowing
Rather be in the hands of the Americans [1910 Dickinson mass meeting]
Large mass meeting for Jacob Dickinson, Secretary of War, held in Zamboanga in August 1910 among Christian Filipinos and Moros.
Datu Mandi said more Moros than Filipinos, that’s why it’s called Moro province; if Americans don’t want Moro province, they should give back to the Moros.
Datu Nuño said they were of different race; different religion; would treat Moros more badly than they treated the Spaniards “who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generation ...” --- prefer to be in the hands of the Americans.
Source: Gowing, p. 252
Capture of Zamboanga led Bates’ expedition to Mindanao possible
P 207 = “It was the capture of Zamboanga by the Manila and the Castine – Thursday November 16, 1899 – that made possible the Bates expedition to and about Mindanao. As Rugen had to be taken before Gustavus Adolphus could advance into Bradenburg, and Ulm had to be seized before Napoleon could press on to Vienna, so Zamboanga had to be cleared of the enemy before Bates could occupy the coasts of Mindanao. And the old Manila was the principal instrument used for that clearing.”
Fighting between Filipino insurgents and U.S. in New Occupied Areas --- U.S. occupation of Mindanao
Not long after the occupation of new towns in the northern and eastern coasts, fighting broke out.
The first was on April 7 in Cagayan; then May 14 in Agusan; on same day in Misamis.
Sporadic fighting continued throughout 1900 and early 1901 in Western Misamis, foothills south of Cagayan, and Surigao province.
Source: Mandate ...:Gowing
U.S. additional reinforcements
p 452 = Zamboanga continued to improve, but to keep the peace among natives another regiment was sent to the south and distributed in Zamboanga.
Fear of Moros expressed by Christians, compelling occasional change in garrisons.
March 1900, Gen. Bates stationed another regiment in remaining coast towns of the island --- and like those of Sulu, had been occupied without firing a shot; although in Cagayan U.S. troops were attacked by Tagalogs and Visayans.
Peace in Northern and Eastern Mindanao/U.S. Occupation in Mindanao
Peace came by March 1901 when most of the insurgents had surrendered.
Source: Mandate … p 39: Gowing
Major Pettit succeeds Capt. Cloma
Major Pettit succeeded Capt. S. A. Cloma, 23rd infantry, who was the department inspector-general, middle of Sept. 1901.
Source: Annual Report of Capt. Morrow, June 30, 1902: Morrow
Moros inhumanely treated like Indians/U.S. occupation of Moroland
Gen. George Davis, who succeeded Gen. Kobbe as commander of the department of Mindanao and Jolo, reported in 1902 that the military commanders of “this vast non-Christian reserve” treat the Moros as they would the American Indians, because so many of the officers were veterans of the Indian wars. Thus, the Moros were “restrained of their liberty, i.e., they are nominally prisoners.” ... he is incarcerated, and “if necessary ironed, just as was done the other day to a Moro sultan by the commanding officer at Camp Vicars, near Lanao.”
Source: Mandate ...p 38: Gowing
Two most cooperative Moro leaders – deputy district governors
Datu Butu of Sulu and Datu Mandi of Zamboanga served beginning in 1913 as deputy district governors.
Seven more chiefs were appointed as deputy district governor under Pershing.
Source: Mandate … p 245: Gowing
Muslim Missionary’s presence raised concern
“When Turkey sided with the Axis Powers against the allies in World War I, American authorities had some concern about where the sympathies of the Moros were placed.
Concern over such matter began before the U.S. entered the war. In his 1914 annual report, Gov. Carpenter expressed fear that the presence of Muslim missionary from Constantinople, Es-sed Mouhamed Wedjih El-Kalani Zeid, would obstruct the “government’s undertaking to make the Christian, Mohammedan and pagan elements of population in this department a homogenous people.” Also that the Moros would be incited against the “Christian” government of the Americans and northern Filipinos.
The Muslim missionary was invited by Hadji Abdullah Nuño of Zamboanga.
Source: Mandate … p 280: Gowing
Protest against the Jones Law - Hadji Nuño
In 1916 Hadji Abdullah Nuño of Zamboanga circulated among his people a petition protesting the Jones Law.
He believed that the law was establishing “an independent Philippine government which would result in interference with the Moros’ religion.”
Source: Mandate … p 309: Gowing
Filipinos advocate separation
P 345-46 = At a meeting after a parade, a Filipino addressing the Secretary, said: “You have just visited our province and have just learned its conditions; at such places in it through which you have passed you must have seen quite a number of Moros, but I believe that a separation … could very well be established, to the end that both people, the Christian Filipino and the Filipino Moro, might have the government that corresponds respectively to each of them, for it is a very regrettable thing that on account of the presence of the latter we Christians should be unable to enjoy the liberties that reason and right would grant us …
“I think it is my duty to advise you that the Moros who filed past the grandstand were brought from remote and distant places with the exclusive purpose of giving greater éclat to your reception. Moreover, it must be borne in mind always, in dealing with the affairs of this province, that the Moros have no political influence, possess no property, nor help pay the expense of the government.”
Source: The Spell of … :Anderson
Filipinos object to Moro participation
P 345 = Unusual procession --- first, the troops of garrison and the constabulary, then thousands of visiting Moros, Bagobos and Manobos, … many whooping and leaping, and “then a tiresome following of hundreds of Filipinos, who had joined in to make a political demonstration. It is said the Filipinos did not wish the Moros to take part in the procession.”
Source: The Spell of …: Anderson
1916: cholera in Zamboanga
It wasn’t unusual during the old days that cholera would hit the town of Zamboanga.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Tagal’s last raid
P 310 – Tagal, brother of sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao, plundered Christian pueblos of Mindoro, Cuyo land Calamianes.
P 311 – One night of December 17, 1636, he passed by Zamboanga. Spanish governor of Zamboanga wasn’t aware of this, until he was informed by a Lutao named Iba, and the governor dispatched a naval flotilla of six vessels and 250 men under the command of Captain Nicolas Gonzales to pursue Muslims heavily loaded vintas. Overtaken at Punta de Flechas on December 21, Tagal killed in action, his fleet destroyed, 300 Muslim warriors perished, 120 Christian captives liberated.
Source: PI Political and Cultural ...: Zaida
Tagal the pirate defeated
P 171-72 = A few months after June, 1635, a fleet of pirates recruited from Mindanao, Jolo, and Borneo, and headed by Tagal, brother of notorious Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, went defiantly past the presidio on his way to more than seven months of piracy raids in the Bisayas.
On his way back, Tagal was intercepted by the presidio of Zamboanga. Fierce battle took place off Punta de Flechas, thirty leagues to the northeast of Zamboanga.
According to Spanish writers, this point is sacred to the Moros. A deity “inhabited these waters, whom the Moros were accustomed to propitiate [appease and make favorable] on the departure and arrival of their expeditions, by throwing into the sea lances and arrows.
The victory was a notable one for Spain. Tagal (with 650 captives and rich booty including the armaments and services of churches) and more than 300 Moros were killed, and 120 Christian captives were released.
Corralat [Kudarat] defeated by Corcuera himself
Pp 171-72 = Gov. Corcuera prepared expedition, which had taken on the character of holy war, to destroy Corralat in his stronghold in Lamitan.
Francis Xavier proclaimed patron of expedition, in which Jesuits and soldiers mingled in its company.
P 173 = Corcuera himself accompanied the expedition. Arrived Zamboanga February 22, 1637; he united a force of “760 Spaniards and many Bisayas and Pampangos.”
The fleet encountered rough weather off Punta Flechas; attributed to the Moro demon.
Pp 173-4 = Demon was exorcised by Fr. Marcello. Various articles representing “Moro infidelity including arrows, were destroyed and burnt.
On March 14 the expedition reached Lamitan, defended by 2,000 Moro warriors. However, Spaniards overwhelmed the stronghold, capturing “eight bronze cannons, 27 “versos” (lantakas or swivel-guns), and over a hundred muskets and arquebuses and a great store of Moro weapons. Over 100 vessels were destroyed, including a fleet of Malay merchant praus from Java. “Sixteen villages burnt, 72 Moros hanged, though Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, escaped.
British hostilities in Zamboanga
The British came back in 1803 after their garrison was wiped out except for the governor and five others in 1775. This time they remained until 1806.
Meantime, they harassed the fort at Zamboanga from which “they were repulsed after a spirited defense.”
Source: p 6: Lietz
British sold arms to Moros
The British in Singapore sold arms to all comers, thus encouraging piracy and Moro raids; from 1840s … (?)
German ships destroyed by Spaniards - gunrunning
About 1848s, Spanish forces in Jolo checked gun-running activities. One occasion, they “confiscated and destroyed German ships.”
Spanish steamships described
Very small, hardly larger than lanchas. They carried thirty-three men and a few small cannons; they had no particular combat advantage except for their speed and maneuverability.
Source: Mindanao in … p 6: Lietz
Blow against piracy in 19th century – steamships
Most effective blow against piracy was the use of steamships. Gov. Claveria secured 18 steamships from Europe in 1848 for the defense of the island. They were sent over in parts and assembled.
The Spaniards could now choose their sites for battle.
Source: Mindanao in the 19th … p 6: Lietz
Uses of the steamboats
P 58 = In 1845, Spaniards established a garrison at Pangasinan, southwestern terminal of Basilan to guard approach from Sulu, since they suspected the Suluans and Frenchmen led by T.F. Pago had made a compact. Garrison was attacked by the Tausogs. Three years later the Spaniards utilized for the first time steamboats.
P 59 = Several thousands of Spanish troops attacked the islands of Bangingi and Sipak, in which the Sama Bangingi were vanquished.
Hundreds were taken captives and brought to northern Luzon.
Source: A de Z 4th year ...
British refusal to recognize Spanish authority over Jolo and accused of furnishing guns
British meddled in Jolo and furnished guns to Joloanos as they extended “their sphere of influence in north Borneo.” About mid-19th century.
Because of these and continuation of Moro piracy, Spanish expedition again invaded Jolo in 1876. Spanish garrison was established in the island.
Source: p 7: Lietz
Appearance of the juramentado – 1880s
“With the capitulation of the Moro sultanates to Spanish authority, there arose the curious phenomenon of the juramentado, the Muslim devotee who swore an oath, as an individual, to offer up his life in slaying infidels and defending dar al-Salam.”
Terror of Spanish camps in Moroland until end of Spanish regime.
Source: Mandate … p 13: Gowing
Juramentados sworn to fight – decline of Moro influence
While other lived quietly and unmolested, there were the “recalcitrant ones, the juramentados,” sworn to kill Christians, and who believed they would get to Paradise if “someone proceeded them on the trip.”
Source: Mindanao in … p 5: Lietz
Military road from Tucuran to Misamis and fort-building - Moro power broken
Gen. Weyler completed military road from Tucuran to Misamis, achieving a “north-south connection between the two areas of Spanish activity” and also protecting “the natives of the eastern peninsula from overland raids of the Moros”; then in 1891, or a year later, he built a chain of forts in the areas of Lake Lanao to control the hostile country --- this two factors broke the Moro power in the Zamboanga peninsula and Mindanao.
Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p 5: Paul Lietz
Strategic occupation opened Moro areas for Mission - decline of Moro influence
Strategic occupation, such as military roads and building up of chain of forts opened more areas to the missionaries and access to the “infidels” of the interior.
By 1893, Blumentrit declared that Moro influence was in decline.
Source: Mindanao ...p 6: Lietz
Spanish occupation of Jolo for 23 years
p. 15 = The last days of 1876 to 1898, the Spaniards occupied Jolo, for they now had the steamships.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Despoiling of the Filipino people
p. 147 = “In the vicinity of Zamboanga (one of the few Spanish footholds in Mindanao) the systematic despoiling of the people was producing a very satisfactory revenue for the crown of Spain. From this one city of Zamboanga there was sent to Spain each year a surplus of more than $1,000,000 in addition to great amounts of tobacco grown by the forced labor of `converted’ inhabitants.
“Father Crevas, the eminent historian of the Spanish occupation, indicts his own countrymen as follows:
“`The immense resources which the government derived from Mindanao proceed from reserves on monopolies, stamped paper, salt, wine of cocoa, tobacco and customs; all of which produce a revenue so considerable that there is ordered sent Spain ninety thousand pesos ($45,000) each month as surplus, with more than 7000,000 pesos per year in tobacco.’”
p. 136 = Spanish required Filipinos to give an annual tribute of six reales, or about seventy-five cents per couple. In addition to monetary payments, “each male was required to give his personal services during forty days of each year, working for the benefit of the public as he was ordered by the government. This enforced labor was greatly abused by officials, who employed the peons for their own private ventures..”
No aggressive policy against Moros
As long as Manila was not threatened and its interest placed in danger, Manila officials and citizenry alike were indifferent to put to a halt Moro piracy.
In such actuation, no aggressive policy was pursued by Manila.
Source: Mindanao ...p.5: Lietz
Samal Lauts living peacefully with Filipinos
p 211 = “Under his [Mandi’s] firm rule, his Samal Laut tribesmen lived on the outskirts of Zamboanga in perfect amity with their Filipino neighbors. This was a condition of affairs --- thanks chiefly to the implacable character of the Moro people --- unique in the Philippines.”
p 242 = Samal or Bajau, originally from Johore, many live almost exclusively on their boats. Found throughout most pats of Malaysia. In the Sulu archipelago and few points in South Mindanao many have shifted from homes in their boats to the shore.
Siasi and Tawi-Tawi are real towns or settlements.
pp 242-43 = fifty years ago (1874) Samals were numerous in the islands between Jolo and Basilan, and this group still known as the Islas de Samales.
Samals are Mohammedans, and scarcely less persistent pirates than their fellow-Malays.
P 242 = Piratical inhabitants of Sulu archipelago comprise two distinct peoples --- the Sulu (or Sulug), and the Samal, who are known throughout Malaysia as the “Bajau” or “Orang Laut” (men of the sea). The Sulus appear to be older inhabitants. They occupy the rich and populous island of Jolo and some islands of the Siasi group.
Alvarez’s mission to Jolo
Sent to Jolo on Feb. 15, 1895, to settle dispute between Muslim leaders.
Successful. Given title of nobility: “Datu Tumanggong” --- acknowledged by Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu.
Source: F. Enriquez, p.1
Prices of slaves
p. 510 = Ordinary price of slave sagigilir is ten taes of good gold, worth 80 pesos; if a namanahai (?) half of that.
Source: The Philippines: Past & Present: Constantino
Time of Gov. Claveria in 1845: in 1848 operation against pirates
In Balanguingui; successful since then boats although of wood were now installed with motor engine ordered from London.
During the operation, Panlima Taupan, head of Balanguingui, was out of Balanguingui; he was in Borneo to trade there.
Balanguingui is in Basilan. During the raid against the pirates, son of Abdullah was taken by the Jesuits. Son was educated at the Ateneo, Manila.
The elder Abdullah died of the plague.
The boy Abdullah was the father of Hadji Jaimudin Nuño.
Pangilima Taupan, the notorious pirate of Balanguingui island, was the father of the boy Abdullah. Abdullah was baptized Antonio de la Cruz Nuño to the Christian faith. When he returned to Zamboanga and became Muslim again he was called Abdullah Nuño.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Destruction of Samal Piracy
p.243 = The Samals took over the piracy after the decline of piratical power among the Sulu of Jolo. Worse centers were islands of Balanguingui and Tonkil, north of Jolo. Regular slavery traffic exited in Jolo and the Bay of Sandakan in Borneo.
In 1848 arrival of steam warships (Magallanes, Elcano, and Reina de Castilla) changed the mode of sea battle against pirates. Hitherto, the Moro war praus easily escaped capture or pursuit by Spanish armed sailing-vessels: “to drop their masts ... turning toward the `eye of the win,’ where no sailing-ship could pursue, row calmly (manned by many oarsmen) away from danger.” Steam alone was effective in combating these sea-wolves.
Claveria took these steamships and entered Samal group (islands) in February, 1848, and landed in Balangingi. This strong force of infantry was increased by Zamboangueño volunteers.
p.244 = Four fortress in mangrove marshes were destroyed; 450 Moros dead, burnt, or interred; 124 pieces of artillery - mostly the small brass cannon called “lantaka” - were captured, and 150 boats were destroyed. Spaniards took pirate loot - silk, silver vases, armaments, and weapons of war, and over 2300 prisoners and 300 rescued captives.
A significant victory - scarcely any kidnapping (450 previously) from 1848 until 1850 when pirates from Tonkil fell upon Samar and Kamagin.
Slavery in decline; Moro converts; some Moros live unmolested --- decline of Moro influence
During this time (1893), slavery was in decline principally because of the curtailment of Moro raids upon the Christian settlements; there were a large number of converts even from among the Moros. Notably along the coast between Zamboanga and Davao, there were Moros who lived unmolested under Spanish authority.
Source: Mindanao ... p.5: Lietz