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March 13 2013 4 13 /03 /March /2013 16:48

      Note on 'Notes': Would like to share these simple notes I wrote down while engaged in research on Zamboanga for my Zamboanga historical novels, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War," and 'The Siege of Fort Pillar.' Took these notes decades ago when the idea came to my mind to write about my hometown Zamboanga. By the way, the research took longer than the writing of the first novel, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War.' 

 

Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916: Part 2 of 3

 

Spanish forces withdraw from Zamboanga

Not getting any response from the Americans to help him relieve Spanish forces from Zamboanga, Gen. Rios cabled Madrid for instructions early in May 1899.

In response Madrid replied directing him to withdraw at once from Zamboanga and Jolo and proceed to Spain.

Source: Mandate, p. 24: Gowing

Last of Spanish forces leave Zamboanga

The last of the Spanish forces in Moroland “embarked for Spain on the transport Leon XIII at Zamboanga” end of May, 1899.

Source: Mandate ...p. 24: Gowing

Spaniards leave Zamboanga 

Defeated Spaniards together with their families left Zamboanga on the Spanish ship Leon XII [sic].

      For six months Gen. Alvarez was supreme commander of the revolutionary government in Zamboanga.

Source: Mindanao Life, p. 8: V. Arevalo

Evacuation of Spaniards

      May 18 - evacuation of Spaniards, military and civilian, from Zamboanga, to be repatriated to Spain via Manila.  Led by Gen. de los Rios, who entrusted the safety of the Fort and townspeople in the hands of Gen. Alvarez.

Source: Navarro interv.

###

      Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga

      p. 4 = Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez.

      Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Saavedra

      Insurgents full control after Spanish defeat

      During the period from May 19 to November 16, 1899, Gen. Alvarez had full control of the Fort Pilar and the old town of Zamboanga.

      The Spaniards left May 18, 1899, for Manila then for Spain.

      Filipinos however were on the alert over the eminent invasion of Zamboanga by Americans by surprise.

      Source: Interv. with Navarro: Antonio Enriquez

###

      Montero didn’t surrender guns to Filipinos

      p. 18 = Montero said he couldn’t surrender the 8,000 Remington rifles to the Filipinos, because by international law through Treaty of Paris guns should be surrendered to the U.S.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Spanish officers and their families leave Zamboanga

      p 241 = Next day, May 19, 1899, or after Spaniards surrendered, the Spanish officers and their families left Zamboanga.

      Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later, November 1899.

Source: Saavedra

      Gen. Montero wounded/U.S. navy establishes gunboat blockade

      The Spanish troops were fired on as they were leaving Zamboanga on the Leon XIII end of May.

      Gen. Montero was fatally wounded at the wharf as he boarded the vessel.

      The U.S. Navy promptly established a gunboat blockade of Zamboanga harbor.

Source: Mandate ... p. 24: Gowing

      Alvarez fought Montero not Rios

      p.4 = Alvarez didn’t fight Rios but Montero, who was wounded while boarding the ship and died of his wounds at sea on the way to Manila.  Montero was buried in Paco cemetery.

      p.19 = Another source (Free Press?) however said that Gen. Montero fell wounded in the trenches and later died on board Leon XIII.

Source: Interv. Navarro 

###

      Blockade of Zamboanga was first made since U.S. forces fear unwise to land

      American forces chose to form blockade because they believed town was “well-fortified under an able and tested general, responsible for the capture of 13 Spanish gunboats.”

      Capture of Zamboanga meant complete occupation of the coasts of Mindanao by Gen. John C. Bates.

      Blockade by two warships, CSS Castine under Commander Very and USS Manila under Commander Nazro.

Source: Mindanao Life, p 9: Arevalo

      U.S. Blockade

      In May, Americans commenced blockade of Zamboanga through the U.S. Castine, then joined later by U.S. Manila, using the island of Manalipa, ancestral home of the Mandi family.

Source: Interv. Navarro

      U.S. Sea blockade

      Half a year Zamboanga was blockaded from the sea by U.S. Castine.

      Blockade effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga], and secured allegiance from Visayan inhabitants – Christians – of the hinterlands, and from tribe of Samal Lauts – Mohammedans.

Source: Potter

###

            Spanish garrisons fled to Zamboanga

      p. 240-241 = January 1899, provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao were liberated by Filipino patriots.

      “The Spanish garrisons in these provinces fled to Zamboanga, where generals Rios and Montero and their troops were quartered.”

      “Upon orders from Madrid, Gen. Rios sailed for Manila to supervise the repatriation of the Spanish forces to Spain.  General Montero, former governor of Cebu, took over command of Zamboanga.  On May 13, during the absence of General Diego de los Rios, the revolutionists under command of General Alvarez attacked Zamboanga, but they were repulsed after a bloody fight, in which General Montero was mortally wounded and later died.”

      Harassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison there under General Huertas, evacuated to Zamboanga.

      Gen. Alvarez continued harassment of Zamboanga forced Gen. de los Rios to surrender Zamboanga city to Filipino patriots on May 18, 1899.

      Next day Spanish forces and Spanish families left the city. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later.

Source: P. I. Revolution: Zaide

###

            Illusion Spain conveyed sovereignty to Moros

      Moro sultans and datus laboring mistaken impression Spain, upon withdrawing forces from the Philippines, reconveyed sovereignty to them.

      Because Spaniards upon withdrawing her troops placed/turned over possession of Siasi to the Moros, and also promised to do the same with Jolo.

Source: Gowing

###

            Arrival of additional American warships

      P 213 = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, November 15, 1899.

      The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival. Probably assumed that an additional vessel meant, “at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade.”

Source: Sailing the … : Potter

      Castine and Manila ships

      P 209 = “The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila’s. Castine’s captain was Commander Samuel Very. Manila’s captain was Commander Nazro.

      Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the sea side.

Source: Sailing … : Potter

      U.S. ships order of arrival

      First came U.S. Castine, then U.S. Manila which was made of iron.

      U.S. Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila.

Source: Potter

      U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga

      Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen. Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards.

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

      Gen. Otis bypasses Zamboanga and instead occupies Jolo - May 1899

      After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo on May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis believing “that it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, Otis settled for the occupation of Jolo for the time being.”

Source: Mandate ... p 24: Gowing

 

 

 

U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga

 

Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen. Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards.

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

            Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga

      Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.”

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

###

 American forces unable to land in Zamboanga

      p 450 = “The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon.”

      Gen. Rios informed that Americans couldn’t relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in the Sulu archipelago.

      Gen. Bates arrived Zamboanga September 15, 1899, and had talk with Colonel Vicente Alvarez, without result. The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commander Very of the Navy: “they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon. That they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States.”

      Gen. Very had for some time been “holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine.

      Because of a probable armed resistance, Zamboanga “was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters.

Source: Philippine insurrection against the U.S.: Taylor

###

      U.S. gunboats to Jolo for assistance

      P 553 = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance. Two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place.

Source: AR 1902 vol ix, September 16, 1901: Pettit

###

      Attempted bribe for Zamboanga’s surrender

P 9 = During blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez: Captain Tiano Canazares and Tishu Macrohon ---   to offer Gen. Alvarez $75,000 for the surrender of the town and prevent bloodshed [sic].

Alvarez’s reply: “Go tell the Americans, Zamboanga would never be surrendered and resistance would go on to the last man.”

Source: Arevalo

   Alvarez vows to fight to end in answer to bribery $75-T

P 2 = Alvarez told the two emissaries [Chinese] who had offered the Americans’ offer of $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga:

“Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last men.”

Source: Interv.:  Enriquez, F.

Native troops

p 447 = Spaniards preparing for evacuation discharged their native troops (Tagalogs) and turned over to them sufficient arms to defend themselves, in 1899.

p 448 = Not many native troops; example in Cotabato, May 1899, there were only sixty Tagalog soldiers.

p 447-48 = These native troops organized themselves as rulers of the towns in which they had been left and then asked for recognition from Aguinaldo.”

Source: Taylor

U.S. 23rd infantry to Jolo

On May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve Spanish garrison in Jolo --- after Spain decided to evacuate.

Source: Mandate ...p 24: Gowing

Spanish garrison relieved in Jolo

p 450 = May 19, 1899, the 23rd infantry under Capt. E. B. Pratt relieved the Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan of Jolo.

No force was needed as Pratt’s diplomacy convinced the sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.”

Source: Taylor

###

Alvarez moves headquarters to Mercedes

      p 553 =  Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

Alvarez moved headquarters to Mercedes

p 9 = Alvarez first had his headquarters at Sta. Maria, “but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling” moved it to Mercedes.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

Massing of Spanish troops

p. 148 - “On May 23, 1899 --- all Spanish forces in Mindanao were massed in the fortress of Zamboanga.”

Source: Hurley

###

August, 1899 --- Capt. Pratt’s tactfulness

      = Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and with the diplomatic spadework of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan Jamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John Bates, U.S.V.

 Moros urged to fight against Americans --- refuses

      p 448 = On August 10, 1899, Gen. Trias urged Mindanao and Jolo to “fall upon them [Americans] in the Southern islands,” since the Americans everywhere in Luzon were being defeated; this “did not produce any effect upon them.”

      About this time Felipe Buencamino wrote Datu Pedro Cuevas urging him to aid in driving the Americans away. Cuevas didn’t appear to pay any attention to letter.

 

Buencamino told Cuevas that Aetas and Igorots had joined them and had “come down from their mountains and embrace us.”

Source: Taylor

###

Aguinaldo’s cousin Baldomero authorizes Sultan for rancherias/no response

      Baldomero Aguinaldo, the President’s cousin, wrote Sultan authorizing him to establish all rancherias of Mindanao and Sulu a government in accordance with decrees of the Republic at end of May, 1899.

      No response to these appeals.

Source: Mandate, p.26: Gowing

###

Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga

      Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez

      Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Apuntes …p 4: Saavedra

###

Why Alvarez didn’t occupy Fort Pilar for defense

      When personally interviewed by Navarro in 1935, Gen. Alvarez said he didn’t occupy Fort Pilar before and during the invasion of Zamboanga by the Americans on that fateful day of November 16, 1899, because he wanted to save the fort from total destruction by the powerful bombardment from the American warships.

      Gen. Alvarez didn’t occupy nor capture* the fort after the Spaniards abandoned it on May 18, 1899, when they sailed for Spain.

      *Note: Potter says that the Filipino flag flew over the fort for at least 6-7 months.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

###

Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga

      Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.”

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

###

Gen. Bates negotiations with Sultan of Jolo

Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and officers together with the diplomatic spade-work of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan lJamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John C. Bates, U.S.V.

Source: Mandate .. p 31: Gowing

Date of signing of agreement and approval – Bates Agreement

      On August 20, 1899, in English and Tao Sug texts, in triplicate, agreement between the two parties was signed.

      Date (?) 

      = Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes. (s. Pettit)

      = "The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon."

      Gen. Rios was informed that Americans couldn't relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in Sulu archipelago.

      Gen. Very had for sometime been "holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine.

      But because of probable armed resistance, Zamboanga "was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters. (s. Taylor)

      = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance; two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols, were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place. (s. Pettit)

      = During the naval blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez---Capitan Tiano Canezares and Tishua Macrohon---to offer Gen. Alvarez $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga to them:  "Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man." (s. Arevalo)

September 30, 1899

 = Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces. Otis’s reply was that they’d soon be ready to take possession; however, Otis didn’t believe Garcia could control much territory; he cuoldn’t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon.

 September 15, 1899 

      = Gen. Bates arrived in Zamboanga Sep. 15, 1899, and had talk with Colonel Vicente Alvarez without result.  The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commodore Very of the navy:  " ... they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon --- that they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States." (s. Taylor)

###

Insurgent Gen. Garcia surrenders Surigao

P 451 = September 30, 1899, Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces.

 Otis’s reply was that they’d soon be ready to take possession; Otis didn’t believe that Gen. Garcia could control much  territory; and he couldn’t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon.

Source: Taylor

###

October 27, 1899

= Treaty between U.S. and Tausugs was approved by Pres. Mckinley.

      = On October 27, 1899, it was approved by Pres. McKinley.

Source: Mandate …p 34: Gowing

Establishes headquarters at Zamboanga/Occupation of Zamboanga

      Having assumed command of the district on the day it was created (October 30, 1899), Gen. John C. Bates established his headquarters at Zamboanga.

Source: Gowing, p 37

Date of creation of district - Military district of Mindanao and Jolo

 October 30, 1899, Mindanao, Sulu archipelago and Palawan (called Paragua until 1905) were assigned to a newly created military district of Mindanao and Jolo, under U.S. army department of the Pacific and the eight army corps.

Source: Mandate ...p 37: Gowing

###

Filipino flag flies defiantly over town

Pp 208-9 = “Though Basilan Strait, which separates Mindanao from the not inconsiderable island of Basilan twenty miles to the Southward, British, German, French, and Japanese vessels passed in appreciable numbers. Whenever steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or  Nagasaki, visited Manila, and thence proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia, they passed through Basilan Straight into the Moro Gulf and on into the Celebes Sea. All such vessels came within a mile of Zamboanga  even if they did not stop there.  And yet, by the time our gunboat Manila was ordered to lend a hand toward the advancement of American interests thereabouts, the flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General’ Vicente Alvarez, had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months, and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and a wagging of the head.”

Source: Potter

November 14, 1899 

= An hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the Manila anchored at Malanipa.

November 15, 1899

      = Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan.  He was shot in Tetuan near the house of the late Vicente Atilano, Nov. 15, 1899.

      Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened.

      "---until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan." 

      At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto. (s. Navarro notes)

      = Suspected of being an ally already of the Americans, Isidoro Midel killed Calixto in an ambush.  Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel's wife's birthday party.  Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead.  In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief.  Midel himself maneuvered the "matrolladora" [man artillerio] which killed Calixto on the spot. (s. F. Enriquez)

      = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga's surrender by the Americans (Alvarez refused the bribe), Midel was also offered.

      Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto.  After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded the U.S.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done.  Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very "could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done"; town turned over by Midel to Americans.

      Midel had got the people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shot at Calixto who was instantly killed.

      Calixto's men scattered; and his guns captured. (s. Navarro inter.)

      = Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan.

      Major Calixto's murder a "great blow to Gen. Alvarez."

      Midel's men brought Calixto's head to the USS Manila to gain America's favor. (s. Arevalo)

      = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, Nov. 15, 1899.

      The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival; probably because they assumed that an additional vessel meant "at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade."

      "The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila's.  Castine's captain was Commander Very; Manila's captain was Commander Nazro.

      Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the seaside.  (s. Potter)

      = First came USS Castine, then USS Manila, which was made of iron.  USS Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila. (s. Navarro notes)

      November 15, 1899

 = ... “insurgents’ flag (`For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.’) snapped in the sea brezze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zambonaga.”

 = Datu Mandi busy interviewing President Miedel at Tetuan hinterland.

      Midel’s messengers rallied Americanistas, while insurgents’ flag raised over the fort’s ramparts.

      In the morning, Calixto, mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez, while inspecting the placement of the guns was shot dead by Midel, commander of Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano. (Midel got people together, claled Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan, and when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed. Calixto’s men scattered, and his guns captured. After the murder, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. (Midel’s men brought Calixto’s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans’ favor. s. Arevalo) He told Very that as soon as the US flag was seen flying over the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans.) 

 Nov. 16 (?), 1899

      = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death in order to prevent "greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos.  He left secretly for Basilan to "make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas." (s. Arevalo)

      = Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death, since this meant a fight between Filipinos.  Camins was secretary to Alvarez.

      Midel fled (?) to the American ship.  To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance (quite wrong:  Cuevas had refused Alvarez's invitation to join the revolution). (s. F. Enriquez)

 November 16, 1899

 = After six-seven months blockade by sea, the Aemricans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga.

November, 1899 (?) 

      = All such vessels ("steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or Nagasaki, visited Manila, and then proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia" ...) saw the "flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General' Vicente Alvarez," being flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months. (s. Potter) 

= warring of two insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war.  Most lives taken through "some form of assassination and very few in open combat." (s. Taylor)

 Insurgents’ flag

      P 213 = “… Wednesday, November 15, 1899 … the insurgents’ flag snapped in the sea breeze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.”

Source: Potter

     Insurgents’ flag seen on ramparts of Fort Pilar/Midel’s messengers rallied Americanistas

      P 213 = Wednesday, November 15, 1899:

      Datu Mandi busy interviewing Presidente Miedel at Tetuan hinterland, and

Miedel’s messengers rallied Americanistas (adherents to cause of U.S. or opponents of the insurrectionary faction) while

Insurgents’ flag raised on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.

Source: Potter

Filipino flag flew defiantly six-seven months

      P 9 = Rear Admiral Potter in Sailing the Sulu Sea says Gen. Alvarez was a “recalcitrant bandit that not even the American able diplomat Ferguson could convince to surrender.”

      “For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.”

Source: Arevalo

###   

Conditions after Spaniards fled

      p. 9 - 10 = Women were invited to bailes.

      Goy Bautista and Lorenzo murdered by Alvarez’s orders.  Innocent of crimes.

      Tribute levied upon Chinaman.  Barrios and company paid $5-T Mexican to save property.

      This state of affairs “existed until November” when Midel killed Calixto.

Source: Navarro interv. (using Pettit’s report as basis)

      Chinamen pay tribute to insurgents

      p. 553 = Tribute levied upon Chinamen Barrios and company alone --- $5,000 Mexican dollars to save their property.

      This state of affairs existed until November, 1899 when Isidoro Midel, former captain of Tetuan, killed Melanio Calixto.

Source: A.R. 1902-vol. ix, Sept. 16: Pettit

      Burning, sacking, etc. of Zamboanga

      p. 553 = Zamboanga was burnt except the two streets along the waterfront.

      Zamboanga church was sacked, and Luis Lim, a mestizo, paraded in the street in priest’s robes.

      People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry; women were invited to bailes and kept for days.

      Gay (?) Bautista, and Lorenzo were murdered through Alvarez’s orders; perfectly innocent.

Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

      Church of Zamboanga sacked, abuses, company of Voluntarios disintegrated

      “As in Cotabato, the withdrawal of the Spanish left anarchy reigning in Zamboanga.”  The organization of the Voluntarios disintegrated; the church sacked; people were robbed; “women were invited (?) to bailes [dances] and kept for days.”

      Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded inn the streets in the priest’s robes.”

Source: Mandate ... p. 25: Gowing

      Republic of Zamboanga organized

      After the withdrawal of the Spanish forces, the republic of Zamboanga was organized, “but debauchery and crime were the order of the day.”

      Anarchy reigned in Zamboanga after Spaniards left.

Source: p. 24: Gowing

      Town of Zamboanga sacked

      The church of Zamboanga was sacked; Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded streets in a priest’s robe.”

      People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry, etc. “There was chaos and confusion,” said Navarro, according to difunta Tia.

Source: Interv. Navarro, p. 9

###

      Schurman commission

      Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of the first Philippine commission, visited Sulu and succeeded interviewing the sultan regarding agreement for the renewal of Spain Treaty of 1878.

Source: Mandate ...p 30: Gowing

###

      Calixto murdered by Midel

      Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in ambush.

      Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel’s wife’s birthday party. Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief.  Midel himself maneuvered the “matralladora” which killed Calixto on the spot.

Source: Interview, p.2: F. Enriquez

      Calixto murdered

      P 6 = The captured cannons were to be used against the Americans, so Midel, who was already an ally of the Americans, killed Calixto.

      Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan. Calixto was shot in Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano, on November 15.

      Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened.

      P 9-10 “ … until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan.” Calisto brought them in and when he was near Tetuan Church, Midel staked out his guards and gave command of “fire” … Calixto killed, men and guns captured.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

      Calixto assassinated

      November 15, Calixto assassinated reportedly by orders of Isidoro Midel, early morning of this day, a Wednesday. Calixto was then mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez. Isidoro Midel was commander of Tetuan.

      At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

      Calixto murdered by Midel

      P 2 = Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in an ambush.

      Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel’s wife’s birthday party. Alvarez had an headache and sent  Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief. Midel himself maneuvered the “matrolladora” [man artillerio], which killed Calixto on the spot.

Source: Interv.: Enriquez, F.

###

      Murder of Calixto

      P 553 = Midel got people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed.

      Calixto’s men scattered; and his guns captured.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

      Ambush of Calixto 

      P 9 = “It was not long, however, that envy and greed … among the followers of Gen. Alvarez.”

      Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan.

      Major Calixto’s death “a great blow to Gen. Alvarez.”

      Midel’s men brought Calixto’s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans’ favor.

Source: Arevalo

      Midel’s treachery

      P 6 = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga’s surrender by the Americans (it was refused by Alvarez), Midel was also offered.

      Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto.

      P 10 = After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans.

Source: Interv.:Navarro

      American allies

      Rajah Muddah Mandi and Isidoro Midel were the allies of the Americans against the Filipino insurgents led by Gen. Alvarez/

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Alvarez advised not to avenge Calixto’s murder

      Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto’s death, since this meant Filipinos against Filipinos.

      Camins, secretary to Alvarez.

      Midel already fled to American ship.

      To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance. [Likely wrong; Cuevas had refused Alvarez’s invitation to join the revolution.]

Source: Interv. p.3: Enriquez, F.

###

      No truth that Alvarez and Calixto were invited to birthday party

      p.6 = It isn’t true that Alvarez and Calixto swear invited to a birthday party in Tetuan on the fateful morning that Calixto was ordered shot by Midel; nor that Alvarez didn’t come because he had a headache: thus wasn’t also himself killed.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Alvarez left Zamboanga after Calixto’s murder

      P 9 = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto’s death to prevent “greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos.”

      He left secretly for Basilan to “make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas.

Source: Interv. Ramon Alvarez: Arevalo

###

      Alvarez begins war on Mandi

      P 553 – Though Alvarez professed great friendship for Mandi, he began war on him. Mandi’s house were destroyed, and he fought Alvarez in Curuan.

      Mandi killed insurrectos and captured lot of women and children, whom he all returned to Zamboanga after treating them well.

      Alvarez observing the landing of Americans had ordered his men to kill Mandi --- but did not succeed, since Mandi did not give them an opportunity.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

###

      Capture of Zamboanga

      November 16: after a 6-7 months blockade by sea and “stubborn resistance” by Gen. Alvarez and his men, the Americans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga.

      There was no resistance from the side of the Filipinos since Alvarez decided it was futile shedding blood fighting brother Filipinos.

      Isidoro Midel and his men occupied an empty Fort ahead of the Americans, but later turned the Fort over to them who readily occupied it.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Mandi’s men came late for the attack

      Moros under Mandi, who were American allies, came an hour latre for the attack.

      Mandi’s feudal levies came an hour behind schedule for the attack at the fort.

      Chief Yeoman Harrison “reported that a hundrd or so armed men were advancing from Mandi’s village.”

Source: p 218:Potter

      Moros in sham battle although `insurgents had fled’

      Although the last insurgents had fled into the forest, “the Moros gave themselves the pleasure of waging in sham battle.”

      “Their mouths dripped with the red juice of the areca nut.”

      During the sham battle, “their warlike behavior was made the more formidable by the circumstance that contrary to custom, they preserved absolute silence.”

Source: pp 218-19: Potter

 

Mandi’s  Moros not `dignified’

 After the sham battle, the Moros wondered about, “talking and laughing in their ordinary fashion.”

      The Moro “has none of the dignified reserve of the North American Indian.”

Source: p 219: Potter

###

 

Miedel attacks Fort Pilar

      P 217-18 = On November 16, 1899, Thursday, the Manila and Castine steamed within pistol-shot of the Fort of the Pillar.

      Miedel and his anti-insurectionary forces (Americanistas) attacked the Fort.

      Insurgents, about 3 to 4 hundred strong, escaped into the thickets northeastward between the pincers of Hough’s bluejackets and by Miedel’s irregulars.

      Few shots  fired by insurgents and a good many by “our advancing allies.” No casualties on either side.

      At the Fort’s ramp, Miedel himself waved American Stars & Stripes to greet the Manila and Castine.

      Retreating insurgents put the aduana (custom house) on fire but was put out by the Manila party. Also saved was the cuartel (barracks and city hall).

      Only one prisoner was caught by the author and brought to Calle Real.

      Prisoner-of-war turned out to be Mandi’s Moro who hid in the bamboos as look-out for insurgents.

Source: Potter

 

Miedel attacks fort

 P 215 = Just after sunrise, Thursday, November 16,1899, Miedel and his anti-insurrectionary forces charged across the rice fields, with American flag at the head, to assist the Americans in taking Zamboanga.

Source: Potter

 

Alvarez’s insurgents flee fort and escape

      P 215 =  “… under the double danger of our landing and of the Americanistas’ charge, [the insurgents] began to rush out of the galley port of the fort and even to drop from its sixteen-foot walls.”

      Insurgents about three or four hundred strong, “ran across the esplanade, dodged into the alleys of the town, and reached the thickets which then came close to the northeast side of Zamboanga.”

Source: Potter

###

 

U.S. flag raised over Fort by Miedel

      P 216 = “The Americanistas swarmed into the fort shouting and brandishing their weapons. The bearer of the American flag – I think it was Miedel himself – ran up the ramp to the top of the seaward wall … waving the Stars & Stripes in greeting to the Manila and Castine.”

      U.S. occupation day

      P 553 = On November 16, 1899 was occupation day.

      Alvarez and his “gang had left for parts unknown.”

Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit

###

      Cotabato insurgents beheaded

 p 451 = Dissatisfied people (Filipino, Moro and Chinese) tired of excessive taxation and insurgents’ cruelty, beheaded insurgent agents.

 A new government formed which informed the U.S. authorities they were ready to receive U.S. troops and fly to U.S. flag in about  September, though info was received in Manila in November 20, 1899.

Source: Taylor 

###

      U.S. Manila left for Cotabato

 P 229 = Manila left Zamboanga for Cotabato December 10, 1899, Sunday evening.

Source: Potter

(continued ... )    

 

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Our friendly &amp; compassionate Gold Coast team work exclusively in family law, helping people navigate what can often be complex and confusing laws.<br /> Our Law Services can assist you with things such as Dispute Resolution, Property Settlements, Child Support, and much more.<br /> Call 07 5679 8016 for 15-minutes of free advice.
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Do you have any proof about the true existence of the Republic of Zamboanga ? Any document , proclaim or something? Thanks.<br /> Paolo
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  • : antoniofermin's name
  • : See Deep South through folktales and literature, see the clash between Christians and Moros, see its history through tradition and myths, see Zambanga's mestizos as they fought against their Spanish colonizers, see how the Zamboanguenos sieze the strongest Spanish fort in the Visayas and Mindanao, see the new Imperialist U.S.A. trample the Zamboanga revolutionarios by starving the people, see the horror and terror of the dictator Marcos's martial law, & see ethnic cleansing in the evil regime.
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