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October 18 2013 6 18 /10 /October /2013 13:29

Map-fort-pillar

Upon arrival from Manila in sitio Cagang-Cagang, Samboangan,  Mindanao, in 1635, the Spaniards set fire to all the surrounding sitios and barrios; the native Subanons, Lutaos, and maybe the Negritoes, if then still around (missing for the past decades in the peninsula as they are incorrigible nomads), fled like ants from a burning log. And then, the mass clearing of native inhabitants around the sitio complete, with undeniable flawlessness, a  fort was built there that same year, on June 23. It was named La Fuerza Real de San Jose. Thereafter, the invaders put up a community northwest of the fort: the evacuees, native Subanons, Samals, even the sea gypsies, and animists turned-instant-Christians were its first settlers, so mi compoblanos. As the self-appointed protectorate, the Spanish fort commander guaranteed the hamletted people the protection of the Spanish military and its cannons in the newly-built fort, and the guardia civil, the blessings of the saints, and offerings of the sacraments from the lusty (and possibly lustful) friars. Rallying the Subanons and Samal Lutaos and animists to the new community, the colonial commandant shouted this slogan, which was both an inspiration and a warning, infused in the cry: 

‘All-out war outside [of the settlement and fort], peace and freedom within the range of the artillery.’

Thus, built just outside the periphery of the new fort, the nuevo comunidad de Subanons y Lutaos, el Viejo Poblado —as it was later called when another community was put up farther north— grew fast as new emigrants, inspired by the slogan, came to settle down and find a new life. Some years later to no one’s surprise, even down to the lowest Spanish soldier,  the community became a  thriving village, where one found companionship in songs, dances, and drinking tuba, a fermented wine from the coconut tree .

To the fort of La Fuerza Real de San Jose, there was added a fortified area and a curtain with an orillon toward the east, attached at one end of it; it was nearly thrice as big as the fort in land area, and with the Viejo Poblado and the nuevo comunidad or New Settlement—these  trio of incipient tableaus formed what would be then called New Samboangan — not Jambangan as many nincompoops profess.

In 1646 the restless Dutch, Spain’s in-grown toenail in Southeast Asia, attacked the Fort, but was repulsed, and after that no other attempt was made by the Dutch. They learned their lesson quickly. In the Celebes region, however, both the Dutch and Spain kept crossing swords, banging shields, banging heads, and hurling curses and challenges at each other across the seas; worse than runny-nose, dirt-smudged street children in the slums.

In 1662, twenty-six years after its foundation, the Spaniards abandoned La Fuerza Real de San Jose by order of Governor-General Lara, who cowered in a corner in Malacañang Palace, before the imagined shadow of Pirate Koxinga, who had just conquered Formosa  from the Dutch.  Governor Lara pictured Koxinga already crossing the crevices and parlors of the expanse of the Seas to attack Manila. But the Chinese pirate, who was still restless and hungry for loot even after Formosa, never came and his shadow, dark as it was, never cast over Manila, much less Malacañang Palace.  Neither did a gust of Manila brine touch his cheeks. His insatiable thirst for murder and looting was quenched as he was stricken with progressive consumption, a surprise blow from nature, which ended his piratical looting and ravenous ambitions for conquest.

But Governor-General Lara and the lusty friars and bishops, the latter slothful and obese by too many fiestas and gorging of lechon or roast pig, never short of opportunity when it came, in any form, professed that the Chinese pirate’s natural death was a visionary sign and icon from heaven, the planets and the stars, uncontested proof of the great power of the Catholic Church¾declaring it a miracle: God or the Holy Ghost intervening and striking down the pirate Koxinga, to protect the Lord’s servants, coward or slothful, damned or blessed, with finality and implacable permanency none had expected. So, the Chinese pirate, feared by all, everyone terrified even by the mere specter  of his infectious shadow, and trembled at the sound of his name ‘Koxinga’ ¾  he, the most feared, the conqueror of Formosa ¾  never even saw a silhouette of Manila, much less Malacañang Palace, nor breathed the fragrance of the sweet smelling sampaguita flower of  Las Islas Felipenas.

Since La Fuerza Real de San Jose had to be abandoned, it could not be left just as it was, with no one to guard its water well and chapel, and the beautiful garden in the yard . The then fort commander, Don Fernando de Bobadilla, entrusted it in 1662 to the proud head of the Zamboangueño Voluntarios, Fernando Macombong  a Christian convert and son of the legend Felipe Macombong, hero of Palapag and the only Indio officer buried with honors at Paco Cemetery in Intramuros, the resting place of the Peninsulares, Manila ¾ so mi compoblanos. The formidable sultan of Jolo, Saliganya Bungsu, was his grandfather, and his grandmother was Nayac the Most Beautiful Subana princess of Pulung Bato,  Samboangan. Through affinity and arranged marriages, the Jolo sultan was a brother-in-law of the ‘disciple of the false Prophet’  Sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao, (dubbed, tongue-in-cheek by the illustrious friars), farther east to Cotabato.

So, before sailing to Manila, the commandant Don Bobadilla told the Zamboangueño Voluntario officer to defend the fort against all enemies, its chapel and beautiful garden, protect and defend it with all life. To which order Macombong, an heir to Moro and Subanon royal ancestries, without batting an eye, likely speaking in the nascent Chabacano tongue, said:

‘Contra todos enemigos, si ... Pero, unico uno que no puedes defender: Sultan Kudarat ( Against all enemies, yes … But only one I cannot defend against: Sultan Kudarat!).’

           

                        A Visit by the Buccaneer Dampier

The French buccaneer (a scented euphemism for pirate) Dampier, crossing the Pacific from the west coast of Mexico, sailed into Mindanao by way of Guam. From the Mindanao river, present day Rio Grande, clogged with giant hyacinth in some parts of its estuaries, Pulanggi and Dulawan, blocking their flow and flooding the sitios round them, Dampier sailed southeasterly and then to Zamboanga. Here is his account:

‘The next day we were abreast of Chambongo [Zamboanga] .... On the 17th day [of January 1687], we anchored on the east side of all these keys in 8 fathoms water, clean sand .... A little to the westward of these keys, on the island Mindanao, we saw an abundance of coconut trees: Therefore, we sent our cannon ashore, thinking to find inhabitants, but found none, nor sign of any, but great tracts of hogs, and great cattle; and close by the sea there were ruins of an old fort. The walls were of good height, built with stone and lime: and by the workmanship seemed to be Spanish.’

 

                            The San Jose Fort Rebuilt

In 1719, by order of the king, the Spaniards returned to Samboangan and  rebuilt he fort they had abandoned in haste and fear of the Chinese pirate Koxinga in 1662. Without a soul seen on its ramparts for over half a century, a horrible sight met the returning Spaniards’ eyes: the interior of the fort was a picture of a hurriedly abandoned place, like a hencoop with all the birds having flown away quickly. Here and there were strewn broken utensils, water jars, pieces of coral blocks and plaster of masonry. In some places, in  particular after the north and northeast entrances, and before the curtain of the south orillon— excretions of goats and cows caked the stone-cobbled  floor.

However, Engineer Ciscara, contrary to the Dutch pirate Dampier’s observation (who himself had unlikely inspected the ‘ruins’ of the fort), noticed that the ‘fort wasn’t entirely in ruins,’ as he found that its outer walls had remained impregnable to both nature's and man's intrusion; even the interior walls needed only a few repairs. If a few cannonballs struck them, he thought, the fifty-seven years of abandonment and neglect would not cause the walls of the fort to collapse. Of the four bastions in the fort itself, the orillon was as good as new, even the three bastions looked strong enough not to need any repair. When the bastions were rebuilt, it was to enlarge them, extended outwardly, and not for repairs. With this extension, each bastion became big enough to hold more cannons. The bastions' raison d’être was more than enhanced: each cannon could blow to Kingdom Come any fool Moro pirate and foreign looting vessel that entered Basilan Strait.

Greedy for world dominion and craving for a piece of the peninsula, like Spain, the other colonists, the Dutch, Portuguese, and English, had attacked the fort at least once; but it remained for them just a craving, as it was.

 

                                          Physical Structure

Ciscara started first with the repair of the interior structures, and then the joints of the walls. At the center of the interior court, an old deep well was dug up again, disturbing over half century of indefatigable quiet and peace; and a guardhouse, barracks, munitions magazine, and a chapel rebuilt as separate buildings flanking the four walls. A moat was installed surrounding part of the fort, and the fortified area outside it, to at least temporarily stop any land intruder from the east, before the cannons would smash them. Water not for drinking came from the river Tumaga, several kms. northeast, one of the tributaries of Masinloc and the extended river Pasonanca, seven kms. from the then abandoned comunidad of the Lutaos and the Subanons and the fort itself. Each tributary took its name from the barrio it passed or transgressed. On the most seaward side of the fort was a terreplein. There were two entrances to the fort, the northeast and western entrances. The northeast entrance would be closed in the 18th century, about the time a shrine at the exterior curtain was sculptured for the namesake of the fort: Fortaleza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Saragossa.

Northwest of the fort and separated from it only by its moat was the fortified area, mentioned earlier, with a long curtain of palisades rising along its southwest side, and here the moat ran around it completely — before land bridges in some parts broke it — connecting the latter to the fort.

Though unlikely that land forces would assault the fort at its fortified area, bigger in land area than the fort, it was protected on the northwest by a masonry curtain flanked at one end by an orillon, named Santa Barbara, and at the other end by a cavalier named Santa Catalina. Northeast were the moat and the impenetrable mangrove swamps beyond, a natural barrier and defense protecting its entire northeast flank.

Invaders assaulting the fortified area by land would find themselves either lost in the great swamps or cut to pieces by grapeshot from guns of the orillon and the cavalier; retreating northwardly to the hills and mountains would not be wise, for there were tribes there that were not quite friendly. One animistic tribe was cannibalistic, and another known to indulge in human sacrifice to their diwata gods during a ritual called buklog. And this was not just rumors. Cre ‘bos.

The governor's house, a hospital, and living quarters were located inside the fortified area, and southwest to seaward was the village of the Lutaos and the Subanons.

Like a square-shaped monster, the fort has two pairs of claws either to pounce or grip its victims. These are in the features of four bastions in straight flanks, and one is in the form of an ace of spades: the orillon. A kind of a deadliest tool of a beast as fangs and paws are to lions was the main orillon, east, and thus around it the fort’s defenses were centered and oriented. It was also the heart in which the fort thrived and lived. Pointed toward the sea, the orillon, upon sighting pirates and raiders heedlessly venturing within sight, would beat and throb as a heart would, sending juices to the smaller orillon, northeast, and the other bastions. And the monster in the fort would awaken, with froth in its mouth, and its fangs and paws bared, ready to crush whatever living thing had ill-advisedly wished to harm it.

It was the biggest fort hereabouts in the Spanish colony of Las Islas de Felipenas and in Southeast Asia. It covered an area of 7,282 square meters. The curtains connecting one bastion to the other are slightly 50 meters long. Its above-ground exterior masonry of cut blocks of reef made up the lower wall, cornice, and parapet.

A distinguishable feature can still be noticed of the lower wall to this day (2006 A.D.), although now it is weathered to a dark grey and climbers have partially cloaked it. Save for the northwest curtain, all the lower walls are battered, sloping downward and outward: 1.00 meter outward for each 5.00 meters of vertical height. Not for aesthetic reason, mi compoblanos, but to deflect cannonballs and to give the monster of a fort a firm hold on mother earth by a wider base.

Fort Pillar has 18,540 dressed coral blocks for the exterior masonry of the curtains, and for the interior 12,744 blocks: a total of 31,284. But that is not all yet. Forty-nine gun platforms, the interior ramp, two entrances, and miscellaneous stone features would require at least an additional 4,500 blocks. Thirty-five thousand seven hundred eighty-four coral blocks is a minimum estimate for the masonry.

Think of this: human hands had cut each one of those coral blocks, pushed and plastered with lime mortar.

 

Originally, the main entrance to the fort was the site of the present shrine of La Virgen de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Saragossa. Of architectural interest, at the top of the shrine is a niche in the masonry. Set in it is a stone figure of the Virgin and Child. Exactly when the shrine was placed there nobody knows; but we have the month and the year.  For immediately below the niche is a plaque, which reads:–‘Governando este presidio el Sr. Don Juan de La Torre Bustamante. Este Frontispico fue construido el Enero de año 1734.’

A second plaque interrupting the line of the cornice but set above the top of the former entrance reads:

‘Rigiendo las Españas la Catoloica Magestad de Don Felipe V, Emperador del Nuevo Mundo Americano, y Gobernando estas islas el muy ilustre Sr. Mariscal de Campo Don Fernando Bustillos Bustamante y rueda Gobernador y Capitan General se establecio y reedifico esta Real Fuerza de Ntra. Sra. del Pilar de Zaragoza lo que hizo el ilustre General Don Gregorio Padilla y Escalante a 8 de Abril de 1719.’

Obviously commemorating the re-establishment of the fort in 1719 and the change in the name from La Fuerza Real de San Jose to the Fort of Our Lady of the Pillar of Saragossa.

In the center of the northwest curtain is where we have the present entrance, 2.50 meters wide. The writer in his youth had passed through it many a time to gape at long, large cannons on the orillon and on its limestone floor watched the awesome Zamboanga golden tropical sunset, listening to the quiet  weeping  voices of the ghosts of the past.

Built as a bastion and a citadel to halt Islam’s from  spreading like the long- legged wild grasshopper weeds, and to crush Moro piracy in Las Islas de Felipenas, so mi compoblanos, the fort, as said earlier, was many times not spared from having to defend itself from local and foreign assaults. On the domestic assault, the Moros led it with crazed screams, rendering the air expansive and nervy, their wooden shields rattling, and spears shaking, their long tips glittering in the sun; and the Dutch and the British topped the foreign attacks, assaulting it with repeat-rifles and cannonade.

Of course, more constant in their raids and looting than any of the invaders were the Moro pirates. Two major attempts were lunged to capture Fort Pillar: in 1720 and again in 1734. A notorious Moro pirate Datu Balasi, who fashionably called himself king of Bulig, nearly crushed the fort’s defenders with the biggest invading force assembled at this period: 3,000 Moro pirates, rushing upon the fort screaming their heads off, its reputation as the citadel of Christianity, at stake and in great risk, so mi compoblanos. Balasi would have certainly succeeded, if not for the timely arrival of 1,000 Mindanaoan reinforcement; there the Spaniards and their Indio allies would have found themselves either beheaded or hanging on a tree, as they had hanged Moro pirates—an ironical turn of fate.

 

The fort of Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Saragossa, the palisade area, and the pueblo of the Subanons and Lutaos were the genesis of the modern town of Zamboanga, so mi compoblanos. And for over two and a half centuries to the time of the telling of our story, the fort had remained free and unconquered by Moro pirates and foreign invaders.  

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July 5 2013 6 05 /07 /July /2013 19:47

Excerpt:

Antonio Enriquez: The Betrayal, historical novel, 387 pp. NBDB 2012 grant research & title    

 

 

Weeks past of  September, 1899, the people poignantly felt the gruesomeness of the blockade. A bad harvest in July because of torrential rains and the lack of workers to work the rice and corn fields made the situation worse.            

            General Alvarez rode into Curuan barrio, an old settlement, with a largely Christianized population, some 30 kms. southeast of the plaza of Zamboanga. As he entered the barrio he smelled it, and a sour taste  pricked his tongue, turned his stomach; suspecting its worse source, a ball of revulsion emitted from the pit of his stomach, jabbed the balls of his eyes.

            By the narrow trail a farmer, a lean stick in his hand, stood staring at a bonfire.

            ‘What is that burning?’ said General Alvarez.

            ‘Corpses, señor,”said the farmer.

            ‘Did you say ---- ?’

            ‘Yes, señor.’

            ‘You know, hombre, that it is heathen and blasphemous to burn the dead! They should be buried decently, and a prayer said for their soul. A priest … for the last sacrament.’

            ‘Too late … the mother, children, and the father were found decomposed many days ago maybe,’ said the farmer with the stick in his hand. ‘Far from here … out there on the mountain slope in a hut. On a cart a relative took the bodies here, looking for a priest. He told us the family died because of hunger, no food there in the mountains … h’mn, No road there to bring in food, much needed food since the harvest was worse in a decade.

            ‘When no priest came he left the corpses there, they lay there, then, abandoned for more days. And the corpses began to rot more, the smell unbearable … becoming worse every day, so I burnt them to stop the smell.’

            ‘Are there more dead near here?’

            ‘None, señor. The dead from starvation are found only in the sitios and barrios of Tripa Manok and Vitali, far from here, up there in the mountain ranges. Yes, too far from the plaza if it happens a venturous merchant gets through the blockade with his cavans of rice and corn … But the people are hungry. It is the blockade, señor, that makes them hungry.’  

             A gust of wind blew a wisp of burnt rotten flesh to his nostrils, and General Alvarez spun his horse and rode back toward the plaza; as the farmer, staring at the burning corpses, stuck his stick into the bonfire.

             Quick sparks lifted and fell back on to the bonfire without dying.

 

 

 

General John Bates some time ago had returned to Zamboanga from Jolo. A week after his arrival, he made arrangements to talk with General Alvarez.

            He vigorously urged General Alvarez to surrender Zamboanga peacefully, and as peace offering again offered $75,000, presented earlier by General Otis through the Chinese emissaries Macrohon and Cañazares. General Alvarez gave an almost identical reply of his earlier rejection.

            Later, Bates told Captain Very: ‘They consider their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo on Luzon. They’re waiting for results of events in the North and wish to  be left alone by the United States.’

 

Blake had better luck with Surigao on September 30, he did not need to offer or  bribe; for General Garcia himself there offered the surrender of Surigao to the Americans.  But General Bates declined. He did not  say why he turned down Surigao’s surrender offered to him on a silver platter, without a drop of blood to fall,  a bone broken, or a head bashed in.

            This distressed the men of the 23rd Infantry and the troops who had looked forward to the bountiful marine food the town was famous for.

             ‘It is said that the pompanos and eye-like dotted groupers are as big as your thighs and longer than an arm,’ the sailors said to the infantry men of the 23rd; ‘and the sea crabs as big as a wok and the turtle as wide in width as  this mess table.’

             ‘And I’m President McKinley,’ said the infantry men consoling themselves. 

            ‘And I’m President Lincoln,’ said an infantry man in a dull voice. 

 

 

 

There was some sort of peace between Rebel President General Alvarez and proud and arrogant Alcalde Midel of the rancheria of Tetuan. Each had control of his own barrio, like it were a king’s turf ironically after they had totally driven away the last vestiges of Spanish kingship and imperialism. It was mid-October, 1899.

            But the peace between the two rebel leaders did not mean peace and quiet in Zamboanga. For neither controlled the peninsula completely, and there lay an imbalance; while in the hinterlands it was ‘every man for himself.’

            Rebel deserters roamed the hinterlands, robbed and rustled cattle in isolated villages, and the regular troops without an enemy to fight fought among themselves out of rivalry and faction, Alvarez’s and Midel’s.

            A couple of houses in town and the aduana were nearly burnt down were it not for the local Chinese, who, favoring no one, stoic and non-participant during the adversity, put out the fire.

            ‘I do not understand,’ said the new vice-president Calixto, ‘why the arrogant mayor of Tetuan seems unbothered by his not having any role in the new republic of Zamboanga.’

            ‘Do you not see?’ said Don Camins, who had refused any political or military appointment President Alvarez offered him. ‘To him, if he shows he does not mind us, it means he does not recognize our authority and this republic. Uh-huh, that is how that goat-headed  ranchero thinks.’  

            ‘That could be,’ said the old man Macombong, holding up an old cane, who stopped by to join them in their talk. ‘But only too hard to tell what is in the mind of that upstart who would only be happy as president of this republic, nothing less will satisfy him. Yes, he himself … Ha, ha, ha. Nobody can see what is that man’s next mischief … what he plans to do next.’

            ‘Mischief?’ said Don Alvarez. ‘His mischief … of that failed assassination. If it had succeeded  would have sent me earlier to St. Peter’s door. Mischief, grandfather!’

            To this, Datu Macombong, the oldest warrior there, gave this consoling reply:

Ay, yerba mala, nunca muera, y si muera no hace falta!’ — obviously also referring to Don Alvarez reputation as a woman’s man. ‘A wild vine never dies, and if it dies it faults no one!’  

            ‘Now you are sure it is Alcalde Midel — not Datu Mandi?’ said Calixto, shaking his head at the president of the Republic of Zamboanga, Don Alvarez.

            ‘H’mn, both of them,’ he said reluctantly.

 

 

 

The Bates Treaty with Sultan Kiram II was approved by U.S. President McKinley. It was October 27, 1899.

            There were a few cries against it in the U.S. Senate; easily it was drowned by the thunderous ‘ays,’ and McKinley, imperialist apologists, fanatic missionaries, and the chest-thumbing Indian-fighters, military bullies continued their knee-jerking march in the Pacific.

 

 

 

Some six months after the rebels’ capture of the Fort of Our Lady of the Pillar and the liberation of the people of Zamboanga from centuries of Spanish bias and oppression, November 14, an officer from Alcalde Midel’s camp rode to the rebels’ general headquarters in Barrio Mercedes. The courier delivered Mayor Midel’s message and, without another word, rode right back to Tetuan.

            Said General Alvarez to Don Camins and Major Calixto, who came in just after the messenger left, ‘Mayor Midel believes the Americans will attack the town tomorrow, and wants more guns to defend  Tetuan.’

            ‘What —? General Alvarez, more guns!’ said both Don Camins and General Calixto, incredibly. ‘It is still the same thing … he wants all the guns of the revolution for himself.’

            ‘Uh-huh, that is nothing new, General,’ said Colonel Ramos, without entering the room but stood on the main door. ‘And what was all the rush of the messenger to return so quickly to his master?’

            General Alvarez did not reply. Instead, he said, ‘Mayor Midel wants me also to inspect his guns in Tetuan, the ordnance that you and Don Camins captured from the Spanish gunboats last June. He wants me to see — the messenger said, and Midel wants this emphasized — that he badly needs more guns, badly need now against the Americans, than before when we drove away Governor Delos Rios from Zamboanga. To prepare, you know, Tetuan from a North American attack. ’  

            ‘So, he has he not forgotten Captain … Colonel Ramos’s objection,’ said Don Camins, gazing round the room for an empty chair, ‘about those guns in Tetuan, eh?’

             ‘No, he has not forgotten yet,’ said General Alvarez.  ‘Now he wants me to inspect them, so we can see for ourselves that he indeed badly needs more guns to defend Tetuan .…’

            ‘It is the same story told in a different manner,’ said Colonel Ramos through the door.

            When Don Camins saw a chair nearby, the conversation on the subject had cooled down, and none wished to pick it up. Ramos, at the door frame, looked back at a group of artillerymen idly conversing outside; he showed no interest to come in.

 

‘Well, what did  General Alvarez say?’ said Midel, impatiently waiting outside his office, to the messenger, who, upon his arrival in Tetuan, had hardly taken his second breath.

            "‘Yes" — he said “yes” he is coming, Alcalde Midel.’

            ‘Fool! Presidente. President Midel. Repeat, repeat it! Cunt!’

            ‘Yes, sir: “President Midel.”’

 

 

 

An hour or so after dark, Rajah Muda Mandi boarded the USS Manila anchored on his island of Manalipa, east of Zamboanga to meet with its skipper, Captain Nazro. Datu Mandi and the Alcalde of Tetuan, Don Midel, were already ‘Americanistas’ — a euphemism for ‘collaborators.’

            Not far from shore were some 100 Moro sailing canoes. Datu Mandi offered the American commander Nazro to capture rebel General Vicente Alvarez for the Americans.             ‘I will do it myself,’ he said. ‘With no help from you I will capture El General.’

            And Commander Nazro said, ‘No-no, thank you, Datu Mandi. Will take care of this business ourselves.’ And so Datu Mandi waved off his warriors.

 

In Sailing the Sulu Sea: Belles and Bandits in the Philippines (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1940), David Potter wrote this account:

 

On Tuesday, November 14, 1899, pursuant to instructions received by Commander Nazro during the Manila's last stay in the harbor of Manila, our good ship threw her weight into the scale of things Zamboangan.

            About four o'clock that afternoon, we ran into a cove of the small island of Sakol, which lies to the eastward of the southern end of the Zamboangan peninsula. There the USS Castine [1,177 tons, length 204', four 6" guns] lay at anchor. Commander Very came on board, and dined with our captain.  At dinner he informed Commander Nazro of the situation of affairs.

            An hour or two after dark, the Manila weighed anchor, and stood away to Malanipa, an island still smaller than Sakol and a few miles farther east. Here, with every appearance of secrecy, a canoe manned by Moros came alongside. From it there climbed to the Manila's deck a tall man who, although clad as a Moro chief, had the features, the complexion, and the bearing of a Spanish gentleman. The word was passed around among us juniors that the visitor was the renowned Datu Mandi himself.

            Mandi was the son of a Spanish officer and of the daughter of a Moro datu or duke. He had traveled in Spain and France, and was equally at home in the culture of his father and in that of his mother.  When a grown man he had chosen to share the lot of his mother's people  hence, he was regarded as a Moro.  He was the only Moro I ever saw  and he was only half a Moro! who impressed me ….

 

 

 

Wednesday, early in the morning, the next day, the insurgents flag, as it had since mid-May 1899, was flying proudly and gallantly over Fort Pillar.

            Bunch of clouds, heavy with curls, like eyelids newly awakened, slowly drifted on the Basilan Strait, scudding lazily at the first wisp of wind from the west, where the sun was rising in a landscape of multicolor. Its flapping and waving excited peace, peace on earth! 

            From the deck of the USS Manila, Lieutenant David Potter, unable to resist the graceful flapping of the insurgents’ flag, raised his eyes to it. Years later, as rear admiral, supply corps, U.S.N, he wrote in Sailing the Sulu Sea: Belles and Bandits in the Philippines:

 

But certain it is that ballads have been written about Zamboanga, and songs have  been sung           of it!  And, without subscribing to the claim of its being the lovelies town in the Philippines, for I remember Jolo, showered by the vermilion blossoms  of its fire-trees and Surigao, inked to the seashore by its splendid rows of palms, and Davao, made glorious by the  ten-thousand-foot bulk of Mount Apo behind it, not to mention the mountain capital of Baguio with its forest of noble pines nevertheless, Zamboanga was pretty enough to charm the eye of the most fastidious.

            The village lies at the extreme southwest point of Mindanao.  In 1899, not only was it a depot for the copra country behind it, but it was the entrepot for the hemp produced about  the Gulf of Davao in the southeast of the great island. Furthermore, and perhaps a more           important thing in the eyes of the American higher command, it was the point of all others, barring only Manila itself, where the Philippines came in contact with the outer world.

            Through Basilan Strait, which separates Mindanao from the not inconsiderable island of  Basilan twenty miles to the southward, British, German, French, and Japanese vessels passed in appreciable numbers. Whenever streamers from Hong  Kong, Chefoo, Saigon, or Nagasaki, visited Manila, and thence proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Caledonia, they passed through Basilan Strait into the Moro Gulf and on into the Celebes Sea. All such vessels came within a mile of Zamboanga even if they did not stop there. And yet, by the time our gunboat Manila was ordered to lend a hand toward the  advancement of American interests thereabouts, the flag of the Filipino insurgents,             commanded by ‘General’ Vicente Alvarez, had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months, and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and a wagging of the head!

            For half a year, Zamboanga had been blockaded from the sea side by the United States Ship Castine. The Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila's.  Her captain was Commander Samuel Very, well known in the Navy for his scientific attainments. He was the inventor of the Very signal pistols, a contraption something like a Roman candle. This fired colored lights so regulated as to form a code, visible at night for a long distance.  During the World War, the Very lights became famous along the battlefront in France, although the inventor had been dead some years.

            For whatever reason, after six months of blockade, the town of  Zamboanga  remained as untaken as Troy at the end of the ninth year of siege. Two things of importance, however,  the hovering of the Castine had brought about. First, they had kept up a blockade so effective that the food resources of the sub-province were much diminished, and, second, they had secured a sort of allegiance….

 

Potter also wrote that Datu Mandi was busy interviewing 'President' Midel at Tetuan hinterland.  This  interview was hardly mentioned in journals and reports, as it did here in Potter’s book, as if for lack of  content and importance.

            The time factor and a second gunboat’s, USS Manila’s, appearance, Potter continued, was a big change in whatever the US had in mind for Zamboanga, although the rebels ignored her and thought her as just another gunboat besides the first, the USS Castine.

 

 

 

Mayor Midel was treacherously waiting for General Alvarez himself to inspect the artillery  in his district of Tetuan.

            A clear, bright day. Ardently, with eager heavy-eyebrowed eyes, Presidente Midel — he who had proclaimed himself el presidente, it was said, even before the expatriation ship Leon XIII disappeared from sight on the western horizon — stretched his neck and watched the Zamboangueño Voluntarios enter his district ...

 

 

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April 24 2013 4 24 /04 /April /2013 06:12

More than Houses and Places

 

Author Ed Canlas in his book, Camiguin Island in Mindanao and the Houses of My Life, takes us into houses and places and activities that most travelogue writers and journalists could not even come close to, and he tells of them with longing and felt-feeling and sentimentality and wit, and a very sharp eye. But they are not just houses and places and activities, in Camiguin Island, or  wherever, which you as a traveler/tourist can see across a span of water on a pleasant day from Kinoguitan Punta, if you’re in Cagayan de Oro City, and standing there at the Punta under a clear and glorious sky. O yes, not what’s usually in one’s mind, for the book surpasses these mental and physical pictures, and houses he had built and he had to leave, reluctantly, and the mundane images, unabashed, and places like the hot spring in Mambajao, where you could boil an egg for breakfast, or as a child out of impish curiosity, and the submerged cemetery, in Bonbon, made more apart and distinguished by an algae-ed pointed cross, and of course the volcanoes, O Jesus! all those omnipresent volcanoes, nearly everywhere one turns and looks. Not at all these, much more than these; it is that which brings us to realize that these deluded images serve much more, as they engender and stimulate the very foundation of spiritual and moral birth/rebirth, and too the more scathing and truly stirring path to understanding and the reaching and arriving at the point in all quiteness and finality ¾ the ford to understanding and faith and love of fellowmen. - Antonio Enriquez, author, novel Samboangan: the Cult of War       

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April 13 2013 7 13 /04 /April /2013 13:41

I just shared the second part of 'Notes on Zamboanga' --- como ya promete/as promised. In the meanwhile I read a very interesting piece (file) on the origin of Zamboanga's Chabacano, the one in Spanish language. Right away this thought came floating by: how easy it is now to get info/data on anything 'under the sun.' All you have to do is go to your browser's 'search' and ask what you need: click, click, click! Before, it took me half a decade to collect what I put down here and will be putting down, hopefully, more much later. I recall interviews (some not going so well, my being an amateur), and recalling those that did go well like those with Adolfo 'Cabo Negro' Navarro, old folks, of Santa Maria, Tetuan, Tumaga, Guiwan, and Labuan coastal village, and my own father, and checking libraries shelves, indexes, etc., of ADZU and Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro City, and going Iloilo to verify the info I got that Spanish last governor-genera Rios passed by there before Zamboanga, indeed saw pictures of the town'srebels at the Iloilo museum, and the many trips to Manila's museum, libraries, including Jefferson's, and two-three to Notre Dame of Jolo's library. And you have to write down with a pen/pencil, each one, the data you want from them. No internet then, no tiny camera which you could hide inside your cuffs to copy notes, because if you bring in a standard camera, which was all we had then, the librarian, often be-spectacled and the nervous type, acted as if you were bringing a time-bomb in; and so it was all write, write down by hand all and everything. And worse, libraries and museums always never would allow you to to borrow/take any books out, even if you bring in a leg of lechon (we didn't have McDonald's, Kentucky's, Jolly-Bee, for Christsake. It was always travel, travel, taking your own photos, interviews, and every single note you got written down by hand. Susmariosep!      

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April 9 2013 3 09 /04 /April /2013 16:17

Hi! I just downloaded 'Notes on Zamboanga: Part 1 of 3; as promised. Will download the next a couple of days from now. Found out I had to reformat them to fit into this blog. Hope this would help writers and poets (celebrate 'Zamboanga Hermosa!' and 'No Te Vayas!'), cutting down time in research, when writing about Mindanao/hometown Zamboanga. Gracias.      

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April 6 2013 7 06 /04 /April /2013 07:39

Dates: part 2 of 2

 

Jesuits to Mindanao-1595 to Death of Alvarez-1942

Organization of Filipino troops

1899, January – Gen. Montero armed two companies, the Deportados, headed by Melanio Calixto, and another group headed by Juan Ramos.

Source: Annual Report of the War Department, 1901: Pettit

Alvarez reverses role of Zamboanga Voluntarios

1899 - Brig. General Vicente Alvarez, son of legendary Alejo, reversed the role of the Voluntarios by taking Fort Pilar, defeating Gen. de los Rios in Zamboanga; Melanio Calixto the hero of Mulu-Muluan successfully sea-jacked thirteen Spanish warhsips off Basilan Strait, led them to Mulu-Muluan, stripped them of arms and ammunition, but without touching their gold.

###

Evacuation Cotabato

1899, January – Gov. de los Rios ordered the evacuation of the Spanish forces from Cotabato.

 13 Spanish gunboats arrival

1899, April 7 – Thirteen gunboats and a merchant ship arrived Zamboanga from Isabela de Basilan.

Source: Apuntes Hostoricos … 1921: Saavedra, Balbino

 13 Spanish gunboats captured

1899, April 7 – Calixto and Arquiza capturedSpanish gunboats and merchant ship in Basilan straight.

Source: Mindanao Life magazine, vol. I, Zamboanga city, October, 1965: Arevalo, Vicente 

 13 Spanish gunboats captured

1899, April 8 – In the morning of this date, Calixto, et al, captured the thirteen gunboats and a merchant ship of Spain, which arrived the day before from Basilan.  These were taken to Masinloc; in the afternoon the gunboats and merchant ship were taken to the revolutionary headquarters in Las Mercedes. 

A few days later, the Americans took the abandoned ships to Manila.

Source: Apuntes … : Saavedra, Balbino

 Alvarez Appointment

1899, May 4 – Malolos congress appointed V. Alvarez as head of the revolutionary government of Zamboanga.

Source: Gen. Alvarez’s Notes: Enriquez, F

 Altillery brought to Tetuan\Fort Attacked

1899, May 10 – Gen. Alvarez brought the artillery to Tetuan from Las Mercedes.  At 10 p.m. the attack began, but Alvarez failed to enter Zamboanga city.

Gen. Montero was wounded and other officers.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra, B.

 Zamboanga city attacked

1899, May – Ramos attacked the town and burnt it.

Source: ARWD, 1901: Pettit

 White flag raised by Spaniards from fort

1899, May 11 – At dawn Spaniards raised white flag from the trenches, and asked for peace parley.  Conference held on board Leon XIII  [Transatlantic Puerto Rico?] between Rios and Filipino rebels.  For the safe return of  Filipino commissioners, Col. Olvis was held as “hostage” in Tetuan.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra

Hostilities break out again

1899, May 12 – In the evening, hostilities between Filipinos and Spaniards broke out again, because of the failure of the peace parley.  Again, Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid

Spanish troops rescued in Jolo

1899, May 16 – Capt. Pratt at the head of the two American infantry battalions rescued beleaguered Spanish troops from Jolo.

 Spanish white flag

1899, May 17 – Rios raised white flag from the fort of Pilar.

 Rios surrenders Zamboanga

1899, May 18 – Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga.  Afterwards a great banquet was given to the Filipino commissioners on board the Leon XIII.  Meanwhile, the embarkation of Spanish forces was going on.

In the afternoon, Rios with all his forces left for Manila on board Leon XIII, and then for Spain.

Spanish flag had been lowered from Fort Pilar. As Rios and his men left, Filipino rebels fired or gave gun alutes as farewell.

N. Arquiza was appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Apuntes … Saavedra, B.

Spanish leave Zamboanga

1899, May 18 – Spaniards left Zamboanga.

Source: Gen. Alvarez’s Notes: Enriquez, F

 Spanish evacuated

1899, late May – Leon XIII sailed away with the Spanish soldiers that had occupied the garrison in Zamboanga.

Source: ARWD, 1901: Pettit

 Zamboanga burnt

Zamboanga had been burnt, except for two streets along the waterfront.  Alvarez first headquarters was in Santa Maria, then he moved to Mercedes because of the feqr that he would be bombarded by the U.S. gunboats.

Source: Ibid

Alvarez appointed presidente

1899, late May – Alvarez was chosen as the president of the Republid of Zamboanga, general commanding the first district of Mindanao.

Source: Ibid

 Calixto promoted

1899, late May – Calixto was promoted to general and second in command.

Source: Ibid

 Midel’s betrayal

1899, November – After Midel murdered Calixto, he boarded the U.S.S. Castine then anchored n Zamboanga’s harbot and reported what he had accomplished to Commander Very; then he raised the U.S. flag at the fort, which was a signal for Commander Very to land his Marines.

Source: Ibid

 Mandi’s U.S. alliance

1899, November – Moro Datu Mandi offered his assistance to the Americans.

Source: Ibid

 Mandi’s houses burnt

1899, November – Gen. Alvarez burnt the houses of Datu Mandi.

Source: Ibid

Alvarez vs. Mandi

1899, November – Datu Mandi fought Alvarez in Curuan, killing a number of insurrectos and capturing a lot of their women and children.  Mandi returned the women and children to Zamboanga.  Alvarez observed the landing of women and children from the church’s tower, but Mandi gave him no opportunity to shoot.

Source: Ibid

Midel as presidente

1899, November – After Commander Very landed in Zamboanga, he appointed Midel as presidente provincial.

Source: Ibid

 Midel turns over arms to U.S.

1899, November – Midel gathered the arms in Zamboanga and turned them over to the American forces.

Source: Ibid

 Two companies of U.S. 23rd infantry arrive Zamboanga from Jolo

1899, November – Two U.S. gunboats were sent to Jolo to get assistance there; thus, two companies of the 23rd infantry were went to Zamboanga from Jolo to garrison the place.  Infantry under Capt. Nichols.

Source: Ibid

Datu Mandi boards the Manila

1899, November 14 – An hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the Manila anchored at Malanipa.

Note: For half a year Zamboanga was blockaded from the sea by United States Castine. Blockade was effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga], and secured allegiance from Visayan inhabitants --- Christians --- of the hinterlands, and from the tribe of Samal Lauts --- Mohammedans.

Source: Potter

 Capture of Zamboanga led Bates’s expedition to Mindanao possible

“It was the capture of Zamboanga by the Manila and the Castine --- Thursday, November 16, 1899 --- that made possible the Bates expedition to and about Mindanao …”

Source: Ibid

Dates from different sources on the surrender of Zamboanga

Nov. 16, 1899} Midel surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans – F. Enriquez

             } Occupation Day - Pettit 

             } Alvarez and “his Gang Left Zamboanga” – P. Gowing

 More troops to Zamboanga and Basilan

1899, December 5 – Under Col. Pettit the 31st U.S. Volunteer infantry arrived in Zamboanga.

Fifty men of Company D, 31st inf. Under Capt. Cabell on board the Chunuca took Isabela de Basilan without resistance.

Source: Mandate … Gowing, P

 Cabelle appointment, Dec. 1899: Cabelle appointed governor of Isabela de Basilan.

Source: ibid

23rd infantry returns to Jolo

1899, December – The two companies of the 23rd inf. returned to Jolo.

Source: Ibid

 Moros control Paran-Paran

1899, December – Moros were in complete control of Paran-Paran, and would have killed all the Filipinos if the Americans had delayed occupation of it.

Source: Ibid

Occupation of Cotabato

1899, December – Cotabato was occupied next by the Americans.  The 31st infantry was led by Maj. Bret.

Source: Ibid

U.S. forces defeats Voluntarios in Lunzuran-Boalan sector

American forces defeated Voluntarios in Lunzuran-Boalan sector; Alvarez fled, joined Misamis forces of Gen. Capistrano; captured by US forces on Mt. aloran, Misamis Occidental; imprisoned in Manila with Aguinaldo and together, swore allegiance to U.S.A.

###

Americans put up schools, etc.

1900, January – Schools and a customs-house were established in that order; then a collector of internal revenue was appointed.

Source: Gowing

Cable laid

1900, February 28 - Cable was laid from Tucuran to Zamboanga, and a few days later from Jolo to Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid

Alvarez and Capistrano captured by Americans

1900, March - Generals Alvarez and Capistrano were captured by the Americans in Aloran, Oroquieta, Misamis Oriental.

Source: Notes: Francisco Enriquez

Imprisonment of Alvarez

1900, March – Alvarez was imprisoned with Quezon, and Generals Ricarte, Trias, Montenegro, etc. in Manila.

Source: Ibid

 Zamboanga from district to department

1900, April – The district of Zamboanga became a department under Brig. Gen. Kobbe.

Source: Mandate …: P. Gowing

Pettit ceased command

1900, April – When the district of Zamboanga was made into a department under Brig. Gen. Kobbe, Col. Pettit ceased to command the district.         

Source: Ibid

31st U.S. Volunteer Inf. replaced

1900, May 14 – The 31st U.S. volunteer inf. was concentrated in Zamboanga, and it left the department on board Hancock. It was replaced by the companies of the 10th inf. 5th Cavalry, and the 23rd infantry.

Source: Ibid

Midel relieved

1901, February – Midel asked to be relieved of his post.

Source: Ibid

 Capture of Aguinaldo

1901, March 23 – Funston captured Aguinaldo.

 Meeting for unification of the pueblos

1901, March 30 to October 11, 1901 – Meeting to unify the five pueblos into the municipality of which was to be called Zamboanga.

 Zamboanga into a municipality

1901, June – the completion of the province of Zamboanga into a single municipality.

Source: Mandate … : P. Gowing

Alvarez pledges allegiance to U.S.

1901, August 2 – Gen. Alvarez pledged allegiance to the U.S.A.

Source: R. Arevalo

Other leader moved to Lanao

1901, June [conflicting dates?]– After the capture of Alvarez, the other insurgent leader Deloso moved to Lanao.

Source: appendix 6. Report of Brig. Gen. G. Davies, commanding, 7th separate brigade, August 1, 1902

 

Alvarez released

1902, August 2 – Gen. Alvarez was released by the Americans.

Source: Zamboanga’s forgotten heroes: V. Arevalo

Alvarez returned to Zamboanga

1903, January 26 – Gen. Alvarez returned to Zamboanga

Source: Ibid

 Alvarez appointed officer

1904, October 29 – Gen. Alvarez was appointed PC officer.

 Alvarez appointment of first deputy

1914, April 1 – After the abolition of the American regime, Gen. Alvarez was appointed first deputy civil governor of Dapitan and Judge of the tribunal ward.

Source: Zamboanga’s Forgotten Hero: V. Arevalo

Department took over Moro provinces

1914-1920 – The department of Mindanao and Sulu took over the Moro province.

1920 – With the abolition of the department, the bureau of non-Christian tribes under the department of the interiror came into being.

 Death of Alvarez

1942, November 4 – Gen. Alvarez died in Labason, Zamboanga del Norte, of illness.  Eighty years old.

                      end

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April 6 2013 7 06 /04 /April /2013 06:34

Historical Dates: Part 1 of 2

 

Jesuits to Mindanao-1595 to Death of Alvarez-1942

 

Jesuits to Mindanao

1596 – Cabildo of Manila assigned Jesuits to Mindanao.

Source: Roots … Lim

Confirmation of Jesuits’ assignment to Mindanao

1597 – Gov. Tello confirms assignment in the King’s name.  First missionary to Butuan, Valerio Ledesma. First missionaries to Dapitan, Juan Lopez, Febricio Sarsali, Francisco de Otazo: based in Cebu and Bohol.

Source: Ibid, p.6

Spanish fleet captures Ternate

1606 – Spanish fleet captured Ternate and brought defeated sultan to Manila. This was prelude an alliance between rulters of Maguindanao, Sulu, and Ternate against Spain.

Unknown source

Ternate under Dutch protection

1607 – Ternate came under Dutch protection.  The Banda islands, including Amboina which was a dependency of Ternate, was completely subdued by 1623.

Unknown source

Rajah Bungsu assumes sultanate, marries

1610 – Rajah Bungsu assumed sultatnate as Muwallil Wasit Bungsu; marries Nayac, daughter of Saragan of Pulong Bato.

Source: Ibid, p.6

Jesuits to Dapitan

1629 – Pedro de Arce, bishop of Cebu entrusts Dapitan to the Jesuits.

Source: Ibid, p.6

Jesuits first residence

1631 – Jesuits establish first residence in Dapitan; Pedro Gutierrez as first rector.

Source: Ibid; p.6

Order to establish fort and garrison in Zamboanga

1634 – Juan Cerezo de Salamanca orders the establishment of fort and garrison in Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid, p.6

Chavez’s arrival in Zamboanga

1635 – April 6: Capt. Juan de Chavez arrives in 300 peninsular and 1,000 Visayans infantry regulars.

Source: Ibid, p.7

San Jose Cornerstone

1635, June 23: Cornerstone of La Fuerza Real de San Jose laid.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Conversion of Basilan and Pangutaran datus; Baptism of Naya’s two sons

1635 – Ondol, Boto, and Quindinga, chiefs of Taguima (Basilan), converted by Francisco Angel and Nicolas Deñe; rebel chief Tabaco slain by Alonso Tenorio; Basilan reduced…

Pangutaran island converted by Lopez; later for lack of priests, reverted to Islam.

Two sons of Bungsu and Nayac return to Samboangan, baptized, inherited lower half of peninsula, given command of standing milita of volunteers, the first as commanding general, the second son as Bn. Cdr. Of 800 regulares.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Defeat of Pirate Tagal

1636, December 21 - Tagal and his pirate fleet were vanquished off Punta Flechas; he was “Kudarat’s admiral.  Tagal was slain, over 100 captives released, and 300 captured.  Spanish forces were led by Sgt. Maj. Nicolas Gonzales.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

Defeat of Kudarat

1637 - Kudarat defeated in Ilihan by Governor-General Corcuera with former Kudarat’s ally Sofocan.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

Corcuera lay siege on Jolo’s sultan Bungsu

1638 - Corcuera “punishes” Rajah Bungsu, sultan of Jolo.  Suffered heaviest casualties ever, with five officers dead in action and five others dead from dysentery; eighty-seven Spaniards in all.

Source: Ibid, p. 79

Voluntarios suffer only defeat

1639 - Voluntarios suffered only recorded defeat under overall command of General Almonte.                

Combes assigned to Zamboanga

1645 – Combes assigned to Samboangan, missionizes Baliwan, Bocot, Malandi, Recodo, Siocon.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Bungsu and Spain Peace Treaty

1646 – Rajah Bungsu signed treaty of peace with Spain; exempted from tribute and quintas for Zamboanga.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Revolt of Palapag

1649  – Sumoroy revolt of Palapag spreads to Camarines and south to Siocon; Gen. Roxas appealed for help from the Voluntarios of Samboangan.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Alonso changes Roxa’s battle plans; Felipe Macombong is killed

1650 – Alonso Macombong threatened to abandon if Roxas didn’t change battle plans, which the latter did, and Voluntarios assaulted Sumoroy’s headquarters and quelled revolt.

Felipe Macombong dies of war wounds on way to Manila, is embalmed and given military burial inside Fort San Jose.

Source: Ibid, p.7

Lopez and Montiel murdered

1655 – Lopez and Montiel murdered by Balatamay in Buayan, Mindanao.

Source: Ibid

Cogseng takes Formosa

1662 – Cogseng took Formosa from the Dutch, sent letter to De Lara who ordered total pullout of SFIS (spiritual forces of Imperial Spain) and AFIS (armed forces of Imperial Spain) from Samboangan.

Sources: Ibid, p.7

Pullout from Fort San Jose in Samboangan

1663, Jan. 7 – Pullout of fort for Manila, leaving Alonso Macombong in command without artillery; charged to defend the fort “in the king’s name against all enemies,” but he refuses to against Kudarat.”

Curtain of history fell for 56 years; 24 years later, William Dampier, British consair took a peek behind the curtain, met nobody except hoofprints and ruined fort.

Bereft of priests, all 6,000 converts revert to Islam.

Source: Ibid, p. 7 & 8

Lopez and Montiel killed

1655 – Lopez and Montiel killed by Balatamay in Buayen [Buhayen].

Source: Ibid, p.7

Re-occupation of Samboangan

1719 – Reoccupation by order of Gov. Fernando Bustillo y Bustamante: Gen. Gregorio Padilla y Escalante, governor and commander of Fort Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Zaragosa; construction engineer, Juan de Sicarra; reconstruction of fort on same old foundation.

Source: Ibid, p.67.

Datu Balasi attacks Fort Pilar

1720 – Datu Balasi with 3,000 Maranaos, Tausogs, and Buayens lay siege on fort, repulsed three months later with the arrival of 1,090 Mindanaos allied to Spaniards.

Source: Ibid, p.67

New Converts

1721 – Jesuits made new converts in Zamboanga, 600 baptized.

Source: Ibid, p.67

Pedro Estrada Bad-de appointed Cdr. of Lutaos

1733 – Pedro Estrada Bad-de, son of Alonso Macombong, appointed Cdr. of Lutaos and Subanons with rank of general; his wife baptized (with daughter Dominga) co-ruler with Pedro Bad-de.

 Source: Ibid, p.67

First official intermarriage

1744 or thereabouts – Inocencio Atilano marries Dominga and lifts Zamboanga’s mestizage from biological to the level of sacramental and official marriage; first and only on record. Atilano’s of Zamboanga start with five children.

Source: Ibid, p.67

Alimudin baptized by denied by Jesuits

1750, April 29 – Alimudin baptized by Fernando I in Paniqui, Tarlac; Jesuits deny validity of his baptism; cause his imprisonment.

Source: Ibid, p.67

M. Alvarez married Gregoria

1764 or thereabouts – Manuel Alvarez marries Grgoria, daughter of Inocencio and Dominga; Alvarezes of Zamboanga start with four children.

Source: Ibid, p.68

Alvarez to Jolo

1768 – M. Alvarez goes to Jolo to wean Sultan Alimudin and Ruma Bichara from British; receives Royal welcome from Sultana [?], holds intimate converse withy royalty, amazes Spaniards with nightly classes in dancing and singing.  Score: wonon diplomacy, lost on conversion of Muslims.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Jesuits exiled

1768 – Jesuits exiled from the Philippines “due to church politics in Rome.” In 1859, by virtue of Royal Degree in 1852, Jesuits returned to the Philippines.

Source: “Critic at Large”:Cruz. Starweek, July 16, 1994, p.6

British repulsed

1979 [sic]- British attack Fort Pilar; was repulsed, returned home.

Source: Roots … Lim: p. 68

Fort La Caldera

1784 – Fort La Caldera built as protection from raids.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Claveria humbles Balingingi pirates

1848 - Governor General Narciso Claveria humbled the “fiercest pirates of the South,” the Balangingis; medals and citations given.  Claveria called the Voluntarios “briosos Zamboangueños” (spirited, valorous) and “denodados soldados” (brave, galant) soldiers.

Source: Ibid, p. 80

1851 – Urbiztondo conquers Jolo

Urbiztondo besieged Jolo from the sea and burnt it, famous friar Pascual Ibanez, O.S.A. killed, while leading his contingentof Cebu voluntarios.

300 Voluntarios cited; left without garrison, Jolo resurges strong.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

1860 – Zamboanga made politico-military capital

of Mindanao divided into six districts: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Misamis, Surigao, and Basilan.

Source: Ibid, p.68

Cavite mutineers over-powered by Zamboanga Voluntarios

1872 - Cavite mutineers imprisoned in Fort Pilar overpowered garrison and staged riot.  Valuntarios saved Zamboanga with counter attack which wiped out mutineers in Rio Hondo mangroves: Alejo Alvarez and Florencio Enriquez cited; Zamboanga named “La Leal y Valiente Villa.”

Source: Ibid, p. 80

Malcampo conquers Jolo

1876 – Malcampo conquers, fortifies and beautifies Jolo; 400 Voluntarios cited:  Alejo Alvarez, interpreter and chief of Voluntarios, wounded in assault of Cota parrang, age 50; together with interperter Ortuoste, Alejo signs peace treaty between Spain and the Sultan.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Dispute betwee Moro leaders

1885, Feb. 15 – Spanish government sends V. Alvarez to Jolo to settle the dispute between Sultan Kiram II and Datu Julkarnain.

Sources: F. Enriquez & P. Gowing

Gov. Terrero’s campaign of Cotabato

1886 to 1887 Gov. Emilio Terroro’s campaign of Cotabato

Source: Lim ... p. 80

###

Weyler’s campaign of Lanao

1891 - Gov. Valeriano Weyler’s campaign of Lanao

Source: Lim ... p. 80

###

Parrado as governor

1893 – Parrado becomes governor and commander of Fort of Pilar.

Source: Ibid, p. 68

Marawi campaign

1894 – Parrado takes command of Marawi campaign where Voluntarios receive highest awards for bravery and coolness under fire:  they make final assault on Marawi and stay for reconstruction of fort and city; Calle Gen. Parrado, Calle Marawi and Calle Voluntarios criss-cross Calle Corcuera and Calle Felip II; leading citizens sign petition for Pueblo Parrado.

p. 68

Longest continuous campaign participated in by Voluntarios lasting one year (March 1894 to March 1895) under General parrado, whose history chronicles the most glowing, most detailed account of Voluntarios Moros de Sibuguey y Cotabato; citations, promotions, medfals and recommendations.

Source: Ibid, p. 81  

Filipino revollution spreads to Zamboanga

1898 – revolution spreads to Zamboanga. Vicente Alvarez named military governor of Zamboanga-Basilan sector by Malolos government, with rank of brigadier general; takes Fort Pilar and ousts AFIS (armed forces of imperial Spain), under Gen. Diego de los Rios, who flees to Iloilo and surrenders to General Delgado [Note: Personally saw Gen. De los Rios’s portrait on wall of Iloilo Museum, Iloilo city]; last bastion of Spain in the Philippines.

Source: Ibid, p. 69

Outbreak of revolution

1898, March – On this date Filipino revolution started in Zamboanga. Alvarez was one of the leaders.

Source: Mandate … Gowing, P.

(continued)

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April 1 2013 2 01 /04 /April /2013 14:47

Thought I'd start it with dates, the way we were taught in the elementary grades; just how history was learned then. Pues, am putting off 'notes of Zamboanga,' then put them after 'dates.' Will be done within the week. All in good time, amigos y amigas. Whether the sun shines tomorrow or no, the dates will be in manyana; por fabor.

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March 13 2013 4 13 /03 /March /2013 16:59

Note on 'Notes': Would like to share these simple notes I wrote down while engaged in research on Zamboanga for my Zamboanga historical novels, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War," and 'The Siege of Fort Pillar.' Took these notes decades ago when the idea came to my mind to write about my hometown Zamboanga. By the way, the research took longer than the writing of the first novel, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War.' 

 

Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916: Part 3of 3

U.S. Manila left for Cotabato

P 229 = Manila left Zamboanga for Cotabato December 10, 1899, Sunday evening.

Source: Potter

Zamboanga fiesta – bullfight

Author and Manila crew liked Zamboanga “only a little less than we liked Balabac.”

Attended fiestas both secular and religious.

Saw bullfight or two.

“… bore manful parts in battles of flowers with mestiza bells.”

Source: Potter

###

Special treatment for traitors Midel and Mandi

P 553 = Midel and Mandi were permitted to have armed escorts of 10 men and to pass outposts at anytime.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

###

Insurgents at war with each other

P 451 =  War between two insurgent factions broke out sooner than Gen. Otis anticipated and “no provisions had been made to garrison the place. The town was without material importance and the troops at hand were needed elsewhere.”

On Nov. 20, 1899, a cablegram from Iloilo stated that “one of the insurgent factions had secured the city and turned it over to Captain Very …”

The said insurgent faction “passed over to the naval authorities a good deal of war material, and upon arrival of troops an additional 1 79 rifles, a Nordenfeldt, and one breech-loading cannon were turned over.

Order soon restored in the city; only hostile force was a band of Tagalogs, about 80, which had taken refuge in the mountains.

Earlier on the same day of November 20, the other faction [likely Alvarez] had “made demonstrations against the city and that Captain Very had called for the troops upon the Jolo station, from which one company had been sent him.”

Source: Taylor

###

Warring factions – no humanitarian sentiments

P 451 – Warring of the insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war.

Most lives taken through “some form of assassination and very few in open combat.”

###

Midel surrenders Zamboanga

When Gen. Alvarez left secretly for Basilan, Midel surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans, Nov. 16, 1899.

Source: Interview, p. 3: F. Enriquez

###

Midel surrenders Zamboanga to the Americans

With Gen. Alvarez departure, Midel “unofficial mayor of Tetuan, together with his anti-Alvarez troops, “surrendered Zamboanga to the Americans on November 16, 1899.”

Source: Mindanao Life, p 28: Arevalo

###

Miedel turns over Fort Pilar to U.S.

P 220-23 =  At first Miedel was indignant in yielding the “Fort to Ltc John Sherman whose men Miedel’s outnumbered three to one. But Commander Very’s “cleverest performance” in oratory finally convinced Miedle to yield the Fort about an hour after the “assault of Miedel’s forces (“comrades of Zamboanga and Tetuan,” said Very).

Source: Potter

###

Taking of Zamboanga – “short of operá bouffe.”

 

224 – “Such was the taking of Zamboanga, an affair short of operá bouffe in form but one whose consequences were important to the American cause.”

Source: Potter

###

Effectivity date of second Philippine commission

 September 1, 1900, gradual  transfer of the government from military to civil. Military government continued executive functions, but his power greatly diminished as commission began exercising legislative power under authority of the President.

 Source: Mandate...,p 40: Gowing

###

Miedel appointed presidente

      P 553 = After Commander Very landed his men, a meeting was held at commanding general’s quarters, and Isidoro Midel was appointed presidente provincial. He held office until February 1901.

      He asked to be relieved and never received a cent of salary during his time.

      Immediately, Miedel gathered arms and turned them over to the Americans.

Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit

###

Moros’ arms left outside town gate

      P 331 = “When the American soldiers entered [Zamboanga], the Spanish guard left the garrison, and the Spanish population and the priests followed. The Americans found outside the town gates a large barbed wire bird cage, where the Moros had been compelled to leave their arms before entering the town at night, to avoid an uprising.”

Source: The Spell of …: Anderson

###

 

Gen. Pershing left for Basilan to confer with Alvarez

      Pershing then a captain left for Basilan to “confer” with Gen. Alvarez for the latter’s surrender.

      Alvarez promised to go to Zamboanga on Wednesday; instead he left for Zamboanga del Norte, then to Misamis Occidental where he joined with Gen. Capistrano.

      The two continued the fight.

Source: Interview, p.3: F. Enriquez

###

      Alvarez flees to Misamis

      P 6 = Alvarez didn’t resist anymore because he said they’d be fighting each other – Filipinos against Filipinos. He was later captured in Misamis with another rebel leader Capistrano.

      Resistance to American sovereignty continued in Mindanao by the insurgents: Vicente Alvarez and Rufino Veloso, the former a native of Zamboanga, the latter from the island of Cebu or Leyte.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

 

Friendly reception by Moros and Filipinos – U.S. occupation of Mindanao

      Throughout December 1899 to early January 1900, troops of the 31st infantry, U.S. volunteers, occupied places along the western and southern coasts of Mindanao, including towns of Cotabato, Davao, Polloc, Mati, Parang-Parang and Banganga.

      All places taken without resistance “for the troops ere given friendly reception by Moros and Christian Filipinos alike.”

Source: Gowing

 

Moros friendly

      P 331-32 = America first occupied region they “treated the Moros well and found them friendly.”

      A Filipino presidente was appointed, a datu to head the Moros, and a Captain Chinese, as he was called, “to manage his people, who were mostly merchants and pearl fishers.”

      “Mindanao was under military-civil government ...” In few years many “Moros were brought under control, and they became loyal Americans, although they had always been bitter enemies of the Filipinos and the Spaniards. They say they found the Americans brave, and have not been lied by them, and so they seek our protection.

Source: The Spell of ...: Anderson

###

 

Alvarez surrenders

      Alvarez and Capistrano were captured in Aloran, Mis. Occidental, March 1900.

      Americans promised his family that nothing would happen to him.

      Brought to Oroquieta where he as followed by his family the next day.

      Later brought to Manila --- imprisoned with M. Quezon, Mabini, Ricarte, etc.

Source: Interv., p.3: F. Enriquez

###

 

Affectivity of elevated district/Military department of Mindanao and Jolo

      Ten days after Brig. Gen. William A. Koppe, U.S.V. arrived in Zamboanga on April 14, to relieve Gen. Bates, the district was elevated into military department of Mindanao and Jolo, under newly organized U.S. army division of the Philippines.

Source: Gowing, p 38

 

Moro wars not printed in Manila papers/general ignorance

      News of the Moro wars  was not printed in the Manila papers, thus there was a general ignorance “on the state of affairs.”

Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p. 5: Lietz

      Moro atrocities reported abroad/news reaches Philippines occasionally

      News of atrocities by Moros faithfully reported in Singapore, Hongkong, and even in London.  News reached the islands through an occasional English paper long after the event.

Source: Lietz, p.5

###

 

Chinese speaks Oxford English

      pp 223-4 = Author meets C. Wung (an exchanger of money) as he turned off Zamboanga’s main street, Calle Real toward the pier.

      Was surprised at the Chinese speaking Oxford English.

Source: Sailing the ...: Potter

###

 

Natives condition after U.S. occupation

      P 553 = Natives had to be fed. 

      Country was destitute.

Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

###

 

Marines relieved late in November/Isabela de Basilan occupied by U.S.

      Late in November, 1899, Marines at Fort del Pilar relieved by two companies of the 23rd inf., U.S. army, from Jolo. In turn on December 5, 1899, by the U.S. 31st Volunteer inf. which arrived in transports City of Peking and Brutus under command of Col. James S. Pettit.

      These latter troops took up defensive positions in ruins of Zamboanga town.

      Detail of 50 men sent to occupy Isabela de Basilan which Spaniards had used as naval base.

      In short time public order restored.

Source: Mandate … p 25: Gowing

###

 

      Rony Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios

      pp 1-2 = Bautista invented encounter between Alvarez and Rios.  Rios was on board Leon XIII. He wasn’t caught in Manila Bay; he was the last governor general.  No encounter at the Fort because although Alvarez captured the Fort he didn’t occupy it.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

 

Bautista invents death of Pettit

      p. 2 = Bautista invented the death of Col. Pettit in Bualan. “There’s a report by Pettit about 1902 about the governor general.  If he was killed sometime in 1900, how could he have written the report? I got these reports from the [US] embassy.”

      p.4 = Pettit’s name appeared on June 30, 1902 as Major J.S. Pettit, director general, in charge of civil affairs, Zamboanga, 1902. ”If he was killed in 1900, how can he become a member of the role of officers [of 1902’?”

Source: ibid

###

 

      Bautista invents participation of Nuño in rebellion

      p.7 =   Bautista, R. “invented” the story that Nuño helped Alvarez and even loaned him his vintas.

Source: Interv. Navarro

 

U.S. Army’s verses

      p.349 = At Gen. Pershing’s dinner, in Zamboanga, some verses recited showed army officers’ feeling about their life in Philippines. A stanza runs:

                “What is it makes us fret so hard

                   In this benighted land?

          It isn’t lack of courage

          And it isn’t lack of `sand.’

                   It isn’t fear of Moros

          Or Bagobos from the hills ------

                   It’s the many great discomforts

          And the many, many ills.”

Source: The spell of ...:Anderson 

###

 

      U.S. spent more money in PI revolution

      P 113 – “With the capture of Aguinaldo, the back bone of the revolutionary movement collapsed, largely ending the three-year revolt that had cost the United States the lives of over 1,000 of the 120,000 troops it had been forced to commit; more men and money than the whole Spanish-American War had taken.”

Source: The Philippines Fight …:Archer

 

Moro coastal towns occupation peaceful except interior towns

      P 452 = U.S. occupation of Moro coastal towns peaceful, except when Americans moved to the interior of the islands.

      Even insurgents were attacked by Moros.

      “It was only when the Americans moved into the interior that they were attacked, and they were then attacked as the Spaniards had been attacked, and as the Tagalogs would have been attacked, because the native chief held them to be foreign intruders within their domains.”

      Hostilities in Mindanao and Jolo nothing to do with the insurrection headed by Aguinaldo.

Source: Taylor

###

 

Moros friendly

      Acceptance of datus to Americans

      “Among the datus who gladly accepted the proffered hand of friendship were: Datu Mandi of Zamboanga; Datu Piang of Cotabato; the latter’s son-in-law, Datu Ali; etc.”

Source: Mandate ... p. 37: Gowing

 

      Moro leader clarifies Moro’s position against relationship with Christians

      p. 347 = To Filipino leaders’ separation advocacy, Hadji Nangnui, who spoke himself as “a Samal,” made “the clearest statement of the Moro position”:

      “The Secretary of War must look the matter in the face.  We are a different race; we have different religion; we are Mohammedans.  And if we should be given over to the Filipinos, how much more would they treat us badly, than they treated even the Spanish badly who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generations?  How did they treat them? Think about it! Think twice. We far prefer to be in the hands of the Americans, who are father and mother to us now, than to be turned over to another people.” (applause.)

Source: The Spell of ... : Anderson

 

Moros object to be under Filipinos

      p. 349 - To Filipinos’ leaders’ advocacy for separation, Datu Sacaluran gave this challenge:

      “I am an old an. I do not want any more trouble.  But if it should come to that, that we shall be given over to the Filipinos, I still would fight. (applause)

Source: Anderson

 

Peace in Zamboanga except during revolution

      Always had peace except for seven or eight months of the “so-called Filipino Republic.”

      Much robbing and killing; bloodshed; terror; no justice.

      “Because of this the Moros were opposed to the Filipinos.”

      Conflict between better class of Filipinos and revolutionists.

Source: Mandate ... p. 25, : Gowing

###

 

Rather be in the hands of the Americans [1910 Dickinson mass meeting]

      Large mass meeting for Jacob Dickinson, Secretary of War, held in Zamboanga in August 1910 among Christian Filipinos and Moros.

      Datu Mandi said more Moros than Filipinos, that’s why it’s called Moro province; if Americans don’t want Moro province, they should give back to the Moros.

      Datu Nuño said they were of different race; different religion; would treat Moros more badly than they treated the Spaniards “who were their own mothers and their own fathers in generation ...” --- prefer to be in the hands of the Americans.

Source: Gowing, p. 252

###

       Capture of Zamboanga led Bates’ expedition to Mindanao possible

 P 207 = “It was the capture of Zamboanga by the Manila and the Castine – Thursday November 16, 1899 – that made possible the Bates expedition to and about Mindanao. As Rugen had to be taken before Gustavus Adolphus could advance into Bradenburg, and Ulm had to be seized before Napoleon could press on to Vienna, so Zamboanga had to be cleared of the enemy before Bates could occupy the coasts of Mindanao. And the old Manila was the principal instrument used for that clearing.”

Source: Potter

###

  

Fighting between Filipino insurgents and U.S. in New Occupied Areas --- U.S. occupation of Mindanao

 Not long after the occupation of new towns in the northern and eastern coasts, fighting broke out.

 The first was on April 7 in Cagayan; then May 14 in Agusan; on same day in Misamis.

 Sporadic fighting continued throughout 1900 and early 1901 in Western Misamis, foothills south of Cagayan, and Surigao province.

Source: Mandate ...:Gowing

###

 

U.S. additional reinforcements

 p 452 = Zamboanga continued to improve, but to keep the peace among natives another regiment was sent to the south and distributed in Zamboanga.

 Fear of Moros expressed by Christians, compelling occasional change in garrisons.

 March 1900, Gen. Bates stationed another regiment in remaining coast towns of the island --- and like those of Sulu, had been occupied without firing a shot; although in Cagayan U.S. troops were attacked by Tagalogs and Visayans.

Source: Taylor

###

 

 Peace in Northern and Eastern Mindanao/U.S. Occupation in Mindanao

      Peace came by March 1901 when most of the insurgents had surrendered.

Source: Mandate … p 39: Gowing

###

 

Major Pettit succeeds Capt. Cloma

      Major Pettit succeeded Capt. S. A. Cloma, 23rd infantry, who was the department inspector-general, middle of Sept. 1901.

Source: Annual  Report of Capt. Morrow, June 30, 1902: Morrow

### 

 

Moros inhumanely treated like Indians/U.S. occupation of Moroland

      Gen. George Davis, who succeeded Gen. Kobbe as commander of the department of Mindanao and Jolo, reported in 1902 that the military commanders of “this vast non-Christian reserve” treat the Moros as they would the American Indians, because so many of the officers were veterans of the Indian wars.  Thus, the Moros were “restrained of their liberty, i.e., they are nominally prisoners.” ... he is incarcerated, and “if necessary ironed, just as was done the other day to a Moro sultan by the commanding officer at Camp Vicars, near Lanao.”

Source: Mandate ...p 38: Gowing

### 

 

      Two most cooperative Moro leaders – deputy district governors

      Datu Butu of Sulu and Datu Mandi of Zamboanga served beginning in 1913 as deputy district governors.

      Seven more chiefs were appointed as deputy district governor under Pershing.

Source: Mandate … p 245: Gowing

 

Muslim Missionary’s presence raised concern

      “When Turkey sided with the Axis Powers against the allies in World War I, American authorities had some concern about where the sympathies of the Moros were placed.

      Concern over such matter began before the U.S. entered the war.  In his 1914 annual report, Gov. Carpenter expressed fear that the presence of Muslim missionary from Constantinople, Es-sed Mouhamed Wedjih El-Kalani Zeid, would obstruct the “government’s undertaking to make the Christian, Mohammedan and pagan elements of population in this department a homogenous people.” Also that the Moros would be incited against the “Christian” government of the Americans and northern Filipinos.

      The Muslim missionary was invited by Hadji Abdullah Nuño of  Zamboanga.

Source: Mandate … p 280: Gowing

      Protest against the Jones Law  - Hadji Nuño

      In 1916 Hadji Abdullah Nuño of Zamboanga circulated among his people a petition protesting the Jones Law.

      He believed that the law was establishing “an independent Philippine government which would result in interference with the Moros’ religion.”

Source: Mandate … p 309: Gowing

 

Filipinos advocate separation

      P 345-46 = At a meeting after a parade, a Filipino addressing the Secretary, said: “You have just visited our province and have just learned its conditions; at such places in it through which you have passed you must have seen quite a number of Moros, but I believe that a separation … could very well be established, to the end that both people, the Christian Filipino and the Filipino Moro, might have the government that corresponds respectively to each of them, for it is a very regrettable thing that on account of the presence of the latter we Christians should be unable to enjoy the liberties that reason and right would grant us … 

      “I think it is my duty to advise you that the Moros who filed past the grandstand were brought from remote and distant places with the exclusive purpose of giving greater éclat to your reception. Moreover, it must be borne in mind always, in dealing with the affairs of this province, that the Moros have no political influence, possess no property, nor help pay the expense of the government.”

Source: The Spell of … :Anderson

###

 

Filipinos object to Moro participation

      P 345 = Unusual procession --- first, the troops of garrison and the constabulary, then thousands of visiting Moros, Bagobos and Manobos, … many whooping and leaping, and “then a tiresome following of hundreds of Filipinos, who had joined in to make a political demonstration. It is said the Filipinos did not wish the Moros to take part in the procession.”

Source: The Spell of …: Anderson

 

1916: cholera in Zamboanga

 It wasn’t unusual during the old days that cholera would hit the town of Zamboanga.

Source: Interv. Navarro

 

      Miscellaneous

 

Tagal’s last raid

      P 310 – Tagal, brother of sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao, plundered Christian pueblos of Mindoro, Cuyo land Calamianes.

P 311 – One night of December 17, 1636, he passed by Zamboanga. Spanish governor of Zamboanga wasn’t aware of this, until he was informed by a Lutao named Iba, and the governor dispatched a naval flotilla of six vessels and 250 men under the command of Captain Nicolas Gonzales to pursue Muslims heavily loaded vintas. Overtaken at Punta de Flechas on December 21, Tagal killed in action, his fleet destroyed, 300 Muslim warriors perished, 120 Christian captives liberated.

Source: PI Political and Cultural ...: Zaida

 

Tagal the pirate defeated

      P 171-72 = A few months after June, 1635, a fleet of pirates recruited from Mindanao, Jolo, and Borneo, and headed by Tagal, brother of notorious Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, went defiantly past the presidio on his way to more than seven months of piracy raids in the Bisayas. 

      On his way back, Tagal was intercepted by the presidio of Zamboanga. Fierce battle took place off Punta de Flechas, thirty leagues to the northeast of Zamboanga.

      According to Spanish writers, this point is sacred to the Moros. A deity “inhabited these waters, whom the Moros were accustomed to propitiate [appease and make favorable] on the departure and arrival of their expeditions, by throwing into the sea lances and arrows.

      The victory was a notable one for Spain. Tagal (with 650 captives and rich booty including the armaments and services of churches) and more than 300 Moros were killed, and 120 Christian captives were released.

Source: Barrows

###

 

Corralat [Kudarat] defeated by Corcuera himself

      Pp 171-72 = Gov. Corcuera prepared expedition, which had taken on the character of holy war, to destroy Corralat in his stronghold in Lamitan.

      Francis Xavier proclaimed patron of expedition, in which Jesuits and soldiers mingled in its company.

      P 173 = Corcuera himself accompanied the expedition.  Arrived Zamboanga February 22, 1637; he united a force of “760 Spaniards and many Bisayas and Pampangos.”

      The fleet encountered rough weather off Punta Flechas; attributed to the Moro demon.

      Pp 173-4 = Demon was exorcised by Fr. Marcello.  Various articles representing “Moro infidelity including arrows, were destroyed and burnt.

      On March 14 the expedition reached Lamitan, defended by 2,000 Moro warriors.  However, Spaniards overwhelmed the stronghold, capturing “eight bronze cannons, 27 “versos” (lantakas or swivel-guns), and over a hundred muskets and arquebuses and a great store of Moro weapons.  Over 100 vessels were destroyed, including a fleet of Malay merchant praus from Java. “Sixteen villages burnt, 72 Moros hanged, though Corralat, sultan of Maguindanao, escaped.

Source: Barrows 

###

 

British hostilities in Zamboanga

 The British came back in 1803 after their garrison was wiped out except for the governor and five others in 1775. This time they remained until 1806.

      Meantime, they harassed the fort at Zamboanga from which “they were repulsed after a spirited defense.”

Source: p 6: Lietz

###

 

British sold arms to Moros

      The British in Singapore sold arms to all comers, thus encouraging piracy and Moro raids; from 1840s … (?)

Source: Lietz

 

German ships destroyed by Spaniards - gunrunning

      About 1848s, Spanish forces in Jolo checked gun-running activities. One occasion, they “confiscated and destroyed German ships.”

 

Spanish steamships described

 

Very small, hardly larger than lanchas. They carried thirty-three men and a few small cannons; they had no particular combat advantage except for their speed and maneuverability.

Source: Mindanao in … p 6: Lietz

 

Blow against piracy in 19th century – steamships

      Most effective blow against piracy was the use of steamships. Gov. Claveria secured 18 steamships from Europe in 1848 for the defense of the island. They were sent over in parts and assembled.

      The Spaniards could now choose their sites for battle.

Source: Mindanao in the 19th … p 6: Lietz

 

Uses of the steamboats

 P 58 = In 1845, Spaniards established a garrison at Pangasinan, southwestern terminal of Basilan to guard approach from Sulu, since they suspected the Suluans and Frenchmen led by  T.F. Pago had made a compact. Garrison was attacked by the Tausogs. Three years later the Spaniards utilized for the first time steamboats.

      P 59 = Several thousands of Spanish troops attacked the islands of Bangingi and Sipak, in which the Sama Bangingi were vanquished.

      Hundreds were taken captives and brought to northern Luzon.

Source: A de Z 4th year ...

###

 

British refusal to recognize Spanish authority over Jolo and accused of furnishing guns

      British meddled in Jolo and furnished guns to Joloanos as they extended “their sphere of influence in north Borneo.” About mid-19th century.

      Because of these and continuation of Moro piracy, Spanish expedition again invaded Jolo in 1876. Spanish garrison was established in the island.

Source: p 7: Lietz

 

Appearance of the juramentado – 1880s

      “With the capitulation of the Moro sultanates to Spanish authority, there arose the curious phenomenon of the juramentado, the Muslim devotee who swore an oath, as an individual, to offer up his life in slaying infidels and defending dar al-Salam.”

      Terror of Spanish camps in Moroland until end of Spanish regime.

Source: Mandate … p 13: Gowing

       Juramentados sworn to fight – decline of Moro influence

      While other lived quietly and unmolested, there were the “recalcitrant ones, the juramentados,” sworn to kill Christians, and who believed they would get to Paradise if “someone proceeded them on the trip.”

Source: Mindanao in … p 5: Lietz

 

Military road from Tucuran to Misamis and fort-building - Moro power broken

      Gen. Weyler completed military road from Tucuran to Misamis, achieving a “north-south connection between the two areas of Spanish activity” and also protecting “the natives of the eastern peninsula from overland raids of the Moros”; then in 1891, or a year later, he built a chain of forts in the areas of Lake Lanao to control the hostile country --- this two factors broke the Moro power in the Zamboanga peninsula and Mindanao.

Source: Mindanao in the 19th century, p 5: Paul Lietz

 

Strategic occupation opened Moro areas for Mission - decline of Moro influence

      Strategic occupation, such as military roads and building up of chain of forts opened more areas to the missionaries and access to the “infidels” of the interior.

      By 1893, Blumentrit declared that Moro influence was in decline.

Source: Mindanao ...p 6: Lietz

 

      Spanish occupation of Jolo for 23 years

      p. 15 = The last days of 1876 to 1898, the Spaniards occupied Jolo, for they now had the steamships.

Source: Interv. Navarro

       

Despoiling of the Filipino people

      p. 147 = “In the vicinity of Zamboanga (one of the few Spanish footholds in Mindanao) the systematic despoiling of the people was producing a very satisfactory revenue for the crown of Spain.  From this one city of Zamboanga there was sent to Spain each year a surplus of more than $1,000,000 in addition to great amounts of tobacco grown by the forced labor of `converted’ inhabitants.

      “Father Crevas, the eminent historian of the Spanish occupation, indicts his own countrymen as follows:

      “`The immense resources which the government derived from Mindanao proceed from reserves on monopolies, stamped paper, salt, wine of cocoa, tobacco and customs; all of which produce a revenue so considerable that there is ordered sent Spain ninety thousand pesos ($45,000) each month as surplus, with more than 7000,000 pesos per year in tobacco.’”

Source: Hurley

 

Annual tribute

      p. 136  = Spanish required Filipinos to give an annual tribute of six reales, or about seventy-five cents per couple.  In addition to monetary payments, “each male was required to give his personal services during forty days of each year, working for the benefit of the public as he was ordered by the government.  This enforced labor was greatly abused by officials, who employed the peons for their own private ventures..”

Source: Hurley

###

 

No aggressive policy against Moros

      As long as Manila was not threatened and its interest placed in danger, Manila officials and citizenry alike were indifferent to put to a halt Moro piracy.

      In such actuation, no aggressive policy was pursued by Manila.

Source: Mindanao ...p.5: Lietz

###

       

Samal Lauts living peacefully with Filipinos

      p 211 = “Under his [Mandi’s] firm rule, his Samal Laut tribesmen lived on the outskirts of Zamboanga in perfect amity with their Filipino neighbors. This was a condition of affairs --- thanks chiefly to the implacable character of the Moro people --- unique in the Philippines.”

Source: Potter

 

      Samal

      p 242 = Samal or Bajau, originally from Johore, many live almost exclusively on their boats. Found throughout most pats of Malaysia. In the Sulu archipelago and few points in South Mindanao many have shifted from homes in their boats to the shore.

      Siasi and Tawi-Tawi are real towns or settlements.

      pp 242-43 = fifty years ago (1874) Samals were numerous in the islands between Jolo and Basilan, and this group still known as the Islas de Samales.

      Samals are Mohammedans, and scarcely less persistent pirates than their fellow-Malays.

Source: Barrows

      Sulu Inhabitants

      P 242 = Piratical inhabitants of Sulu archipelago comprise two distinct peoples --- the Sulu (or Sulug), and the Samal, who are known throughout Malaysia as the “Bajau” or “Orang Laut” (men of the sea). The Sulus appear to be older inhabitants. They occupy the rich and populous island of Jolo and some islands of the Siasi group.

Source: Barrows

###

 

 Alvarez’s mission to Jolo

      Sent to Jolo on Feb. 15, 1895, to settle dispute between Muslim leaders.

      Successful. Given title of nobility: “Datu Tumanggong” --- acknowledged by Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu.

Source: F. Enriquez, p.1

###

 

Piracy

      Prices of slaves

      p. 510 = Ordinary price of slave sagigilir is ten taes of good gold, worth 80 pesos; if a namanahai (?) half of that.

Source: The Philippines: Past & Present: Constantino

       Time of Gov. Claveria in 1845: in 1848 operation against pirates

      In Balanguingui; successful since then boats although of wood were now installed with motor engine ordered from London.

      During the operation, Panlima Taupan, head of Balanguingui, was out of Balanguingui; he was in Borneo to trade there.

      Balanguingui is in Basilan. During the raid against the pirates, son of Abdullah was taken by the Jesuits.  Son was educated at the Ateneo, Manila.

      The elder Abdullah died of the plague.

      The boy Abdullah was the father of Hadji Jaimudin Nuño.

      Pangilima Taupan, the notorious pirate of Balanguingui island, was the father of the boy Abdullah.  Abdullah was baptized Antonio de la Cruz Nuño to the Christian faith.  When he returned to Zamboanga and became Muslim again he was called Abdullah Nuño.

Source: Interv. Navarro

 

Destruction of Samal Piracy

      p.243 = The Samals took over the piracy after the decline of piratical power among the Sulu of Jolo. Worse centers were islands of Balanguingui and Tonkil, north of Jolo. Regular slavery traffic exited in Jolo and the Bay of Sandakan in Borneo.

      In 1848 arrival of steam warships (Magallanes, Elcano, and Reina de Castilla) changed the mode of sea battle against pirates.  Hitherto, the Moro war praus easily escaped capture or pursuit by Spanish armed sailing-vessels: “to drop their masts ... turning toward the `eye of the win,’ where no sailing-ship could pursue, row calmly (manned by many oarsmen) away from danger.” Steam alone was effective in combating these sea-wolves.

      Claveria took these steamships and entered Samal group (islands) in February, 1848, and landed in Balangingi. This strong force of infantry was increased by Zamboangueño volunteers.

      p.244 = Four fortress in mangrove marshes were destroyed; 450 Moros dead, burnt, or interred; 124 pieces of artillery - mostly the small brass cannon called “lantaka” - were captured, and 150 boats were destroyed.  Spaniards took pirate loot - silk, silver vases, armaments, and weapons of war, and over 2300 prisoners and 300 rescued captives. 

      A significant victory - scarcely any kidnapping (450 previously) from 1848 until 1850 when pirates from Tonkil fell upon Samar and Kamagin.

Source: Barrows

###

       Slavery in decline; Moro converts; some Moros live unmolested --- decline of Moro influence

      During this time (1893), slavery was in decline principally because of the curtailment of Moro raids upon the Christian settlements; there were a large number of converts even from among the Moros.  Notably along the coast between Zamboanga and Davao, there were Moros who lived unmolested under Spanish authority.

Source: Mindanao ... p.5: Lietz

 

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March 13 2013 4 13 /03 /March /2013 16:48

      Note on 'Notes': Would like to share these simple notes I wrote down while engaged in research on Zamboanga for my Zamboanga historical novels, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War," and 'The Siege of Fort Pillar.' Took these notes decades ago when the idea came to my mind to write about my hometown Zamboanga. By the way, the research took longer than the writing of the first novel, 'Samboangan: the Cult of War.' 

 

Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916: Part 2 of 3

 

Spanish forces withdraw from Zamboanga

Not getting any response from the Americans to help him relieve Spanish forces from Zamboanga, Gen. Rios cabled Madrid for instructions early in May 1899.

In response Madrid replied directing him to withdraw at once from Zamboanga and Jolo and proceed to Spain.

Source: Mandate, p. 24: Gowing

Last of Spanish forces leave Zamboanga

The last of the Spanish forces in Moroland “embarked for Spain on the transport Leon XIII at Zamboanga” end of May, 1899.

Source: Mandate ...p. 24: Gowing

Spaniards leave Zamboanga 

Defeated Spaniards together with their families left Zamboanga on the Spanish ship Leon XII [sic].

      For six months Gen. Alvarez was supreme commander of the revolutionary government in Zamboanga.

Source: Mindanao Life, p. 8: V. Arevalo

Evacuation of Spaniards

      May 18 - evacuation of Spaniards, military and civilian, from Zamboanga, to be repatriated to Spain via Manila.  Led by Gen. de los Rios, who entrusted the safety of the Fort and townspeople in the hands of Gen. Alvarez.

Source: Navarro interv.

###

      Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga

      p. 4 = Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez.

      Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Saavedra

      Insurgents full control after Spanish defeat

      During the period from May 19 to November 16, 1899, Gen. Alvarez had full control of the Fort Pilar and the old town of Zamboanga.

      The Spaniards left May 18, 1899, for Manila then for Spain.

      Filipinos however were on the alert over the eminent invasion of Zamboanga by Americans by surprise.

      Source: Interv. with Navarro: Antonio Enriquez

###

      Montero didn’t surrender guns to Filipinos

      p. 18 = Montero said he couldn’t surrender the 8,000 Remington rifles to the Filipinos, because by international law through Treaty of Paris guns should be surrendered to the U.S.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Spanish officers and their families leave Zamboanga

      p 241 = Next day, May 19, 1899, or after Spaniards surrendered, the Spanish officers and their families left Zamboanga.

      Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later, November 1899.

Source: Saavedra

      Gen. Montero wounded/U.S. navy establishes gunboat blockade

      The Spanish troops were fired on as they were leaving Zamboanga on the Leon XIII end of May.

      Gen. Montero was fatally wounded at the wharf as he boarded the vessel.

      The U.S. Navy promptly established a gunboat blockade of Zamboanga harbor.

Source: Mandate ... p. 24: Gowing

      Alvarez fought Montero not Rios

      p.4 = Alvarez didn’t fight Rios but Montero, who was wounded while boarding the ship and died of his wounds at sea on the way to Manila.  Montero was buried in Paco cemetery.

      p.19 = Another source (Free Press?) however said that Gen. Montero fell wounded in the trenches and later died on board Leon XIII.

Source: Interv. Navarro 

###

      Blockade of Zamboanga was first made since U.S. forces fear unwise to land

      American forces chose to form blockade because they believed town was “well-fortified under an able and tested general, responsible for the capture of 13 Spanish gunboats.”

      Capture of Zamboanga meant complete occupation of the coasts of Mindanao by Gen. John C. Bates.

      Blockade by two warships, CSS Castine under Commander Very and USS Manila under Commander Nazro.

Source: Mindanao Life, p 9: Arevalo

      U.S. Blockade

      In May, Americans commenced blockade of Zamboanga through the U.S. Castine, then joined later by U.S. Manila, using the island of Manalipa, ancestral home of the Mandi family.

Source: Interv. Navarro

      U.S. Sea blockade

      Half a year Zamboanga was blockaded from the sea by U.S. Castine.

      Blockade effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga], and secured allegiance from Visayan inhabitants – Christians – of the hinterlands, and from tribe of Samal Lauts – Mohammedans.

Source: Potter

###

            Spanish garrisons fled to Zamboanga

      p. 240-241 = January 1899, provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao were liberated by Filipino patriots.

      “The Spanish garrisons in these provinces fled to Zamboanga, where generals Rios and Montero and their troops were quartered.”

      “Upon orders from Madrid, Gen. Rios sailed for Manila to supervise the repatriation of the Spanish forces to Spain.  General Montero, former governor of Cebu, took over command of Zamboanga.  On May 13, during the absence of General Diego de los Rios, the revolutionists under command of General Alvarez attacked Zamboanga, but they were repulsed after a bloody fight, in which General Montero was mortally wounded and later died.”

      Harassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison there under General Huertas, evacuated to Zamboanga.

      Gen. Alvarez continued harassment of Zamboanga forced Gen. de los Rios to surrender Zamboanga city to Filipino patriots on May 18, 1899.

      Next day Spanish forces and Spanish families left the city. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later.

Source: P. I. Revolution: Zaide

###

            Illusion Spain conveyed sovereignty to Moros

      Moro sultans and datus laboring mistaken impression Spain, upon withdrawing forces from the Philippines, reconveyed sovereignty to them.

      Because Spaniards upon withdrawing her troops placed/turned over possession of Siasi to the Moros, and also promised to do the same with Jolo.

Source: Gowing

###

            Arrival of additional American warships

      P 213 = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, November 15, 1899.

      The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival. Probably assumed that an additional vessel meant, “at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade.”

Source: Sailing the … : Potter

      Castine and Manila ships

      P 209 = “The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila’s. Castine’s captain was Commander Samuel Very. Manila’s captain was Commander Nazro.

      Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the sea side.

Source: Sailing … : Potter

      U.S. ships order of arrival

      First came U.S. Castine, then U.S. Manila which was made of iron.

      U.S. Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila.

Source: Potter

      U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga

      Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen. Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards.

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

      Gen. Otis bypasses Zamboanga and instead occupies Jolo - May 1899

      After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo on May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis believing “that it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, Otis settled for the occupation of Jolo for the time being.”

Source: Mandate ... p 24: Gowing

 

 

 

U.S. Forces hesitate land in Zamboanga

 

Despite importance of occupying Zamboanga, U.S. forces thought it was wise to blockade Zamboanga instead, rather than clash with Gen. Alvarez and his revolutionarios who were fresh with victory over the Spaniards.

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

            Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga

      Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.”

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

###

 American forces unable to land in Zamboanga

      p 450 = “The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon.”

      Gen. Rios informed that Americans couldn’t relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in the Sulu archipelago.

      Gen. Bates arrived Zamboanga September 15, 1899, and had talk with Colonel Vicente Alvarez, without result. The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commander Very of the Navy: “they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon. That they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States.”

      Gen. Very had for some time been “holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine.

      Because of a probable armed resistance, Zamboanga “was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters.

Source: Philippine insurrection against the U.S.: Taylor

###

      U.S. gunboats to Jolo for assistance

      P 553 = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance. Two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place.

Source: AR 1902 vol ix, September 16, 1901: Pettit

###

      Attempted bribe for Zamboanga’s surrender

P 9 = During blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez: Captain Tiano Canazares and Tishu Macrohon ---   to offer Gen. Alvarez $75,000 for the surrender of the town and prevent bloodshed [sic].

Alvarez’s reply: “Go tell the Americans, Zamboanga would never be surrendered and resistance would go on to the last man.”

Source: Arevalo

   Alvarez vows to fight to end in answer to bribery $75-T

P 2 = Alvarez told the two emissaries [Chinese] who had offered the Americans’ offer of $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga:

“Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last men.”

Source: Interv.:  Enriquez, F.

Native troops

p 447 = Spaniards preparing for evacuation discharged their native troops (Tagalogs) and turned over to them sufficient arms to defend themselves, in 1899.

p 448 = Not many native troops; example in Cotabato, May 1899, there were only sixty Tagalog soldiers.

p 447-48 = These native troops organized themselves as rulers of the towns in which they had been left and then asked for recognition from Aguinaldo.”

Source: Taylor

U.S. 23rd infantry to Jolo

On May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve Spanish garrison in Jolo --- after Spain decided to evacuate.

Source: Mandate ...p 24: Gowing

Spanish garrison relieved in Jolo

p 450 = May 19, 1899, the 23rd infantry under Capt. E. B. Pratt relieved the Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan of Jolo.

No force was needed as Pratt’s diplomacy convinced the sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.”

Source: Taylor

###

Alvarez moves headquarters to Mercedes

      p 553 =  Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

Alvarez moved headquarters to Mercedes

p 9 = Alvarez first had his headquarters at Sta. Maria, “but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling” moved it to Mercedes.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

Massing of Spanish troops

p. 148 - “On May 23, 1899 --- all Spanish forces in Mindanao were massed in the fortress of Zamboanga.”

Source: Hurley

###

August, 1899 --- Capt. Pratt’s tactfulness

      = Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and with the diplomatic spadework of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan Jamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John Bates, U.S.V.

 Moros urged to fight against Americans --- refuses

      p 448 = On August 10, 1899, Gen. Trias urged Mindanao and Jolo to “fall upon them [Americans] in the Southern islands,” since the Americans everywhere in Luzon were being defeated; this “did not produce any effect upon them.”

      About this time Felipe Buencamino wrote Datu Pedro Cuevas urging him to aid in driving the Americans away. Cuevas didn’t appear to pay any attention to letter.

 

Buencamino told Cuevas that Aetas and Igorots had joined them and had “come down from their mountains and embrace us.”

Source: Taylor

###

Aguinaldo’s cousin Baldomero authorizes Sultan for rancherias/no response

      Baldomero Aguinaldo, the President’s cousin, wrote Sultan authorizing him to establish all rancherias of Mindanao and Sulu a government in accordance with decrees of the Republic at end of May, 1899.

      No response to these appeals.

Source: Mandate, p.26: Gowing

###

Filipinos take possession of Zamboanga

      Since May 18, 1899, the revolutionary government took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez

      Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga.

Source: Apuntes …p 4: Saavedra

###

Why Alvarez didn’t occupy Fort Pilar for defense

      When personally interviewed by Navarro in 1935, Gen. Alvarez said he didn’t occupy Fort Pilar before and during the invasion of Zamboanga by the Americans on that fateful day of November 16, 1899, because he wanted to save the fort from total destruction by the powerful bombardment from the American warships.

      Gen. Alvarez didn’t occupy nor capture* the fort after the Spaniards abandoned it on May 18, 1899, when they sailed for Spain.

      *Note: Potter says that the Filipino flag flew over the fort for at least 6-7 months.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

###

Alvarez’s answer to Americans to surrender Zamboanga

      Alvarez told the two emissaries who had offered $75-T bribe: “Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man.”

Source: Interview, p. 2: F. Enriquez

###

Gen. Bates negotiations with Sultan of Jolo

Tactful behavior of Capt. Pratt and officers together with the diplomatic spade-work of the Schurman commission prepared and helped way for negotiations with Sultan lJamal-ul Kiram II conducted by Brig. Gen. John C. Bates, U.S.V.

Source: Mandate .. p 31: Gowing

Date of signing of agreement and approval – Bates Agreement

      On August 20, 1899, in English and Tao Sug texts, in triplicate, agreement between the two parties was signed.

      Date (?) 

      = Alvarez first had his headquarters in Sta. Maria, but fearing the U.S. gunboats patrolling he moved to Mercedes. (s. Pettit)

      = "The possession of these arms (from the 13 gunboats) by the Mindanao insurgents rendered it inexpedient to land troops at Zamboanga and attempt to hold the place with any force which could be spared from Luzon."

      Gen. Rios was informed that Americans couldn't relieve his garrisons either in Zamboanga or in Sulu archipelago.

      Gen. Very had for sometime been "holding the harbor [of Zamboanga] with the U.S.S. Castine.

      But because of probable armed resistance, Zamboanga "was left to look after its own affairs for the time being, while the naval vessel continued to watch the contiguous waters. (s. Taylor)

      = U.S. gunboats went to Jolo for assistance; two companies of 23rd infantry under Capt. Nichols, were sent to Zamboanga to garrison the place. (s. Pettit)

      = During the naval blockade Americans employed two Filipinos close to Gen. Alvarez---Capitan Tiano Canezares and Tishua Macrohon---to offer Gen. Alvarez $75-T if Alvarez surrendered Zamboanga to them:  "Tell the Americans, we will never surrender Zamboanga and we will fight any foreign invader to the last man." (s. Arevalo)

September 30, 1899

 = Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces. Otis’s reply was that they’d soon be ready to take possession; however, Otis didn’t believe Garcia could control much territory; he cuoldn’t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon.

 September 15, 1899 

      = Gen. Bates arrived in Zamboanga Sep. 15, 1899, and had talk with Colonel Vicente Alvarez without result.  The latter reiterated his statements made previously to Commodore Very of the navy:  " ... they considered their cause identical with that of Aguinaldo in Luzon --- that they waited the result of events in the North and wished to be let alone by the United States." (s. Taylor)

###

Insurgent Gen. Garcia surrenders Surigao

P 451 = September 30, 1899, Gen. Garcia, insurgent commander, informed Gen. Otis he was surrendering Surigao and vicinity to the American forces.

 Otis’s reply was that they’d soon be ready to take possession; Otis didn’t believe that Gen. Garcia could control much  territory; and he couldn’t spare enough men for Surigao, which was needed in Luzon.

Source: Taylor

###

October 27, 1899

= Treaty between U.S. and Tausugs was approved by Pres. Mckinley.

      = On October 27, 1899, it was approved by Pres. McKinley.

Source: Mandate …p 34: Gowing

Establishes headquarters at Zamboanga/Occupation of Zamboanga

      Having assumed command of the district on the day it was created (October 30, 1899), Gen. John C. Bates established his headquarters at Zamboanga.

Source: Gowing, p 37

Date of creation of district - Military district of Mindanao and Jolo

 October 30, 1899, Mindanao, Sulu archipelago and Palawan (called Paragua until 1905) were assigned to a newly created military district of Mindanao and Jolo, under U.S. army department of the Pacific and the eight army corps.

Source: Mandate ...p 37: Gowing

###

Filipino flag flies defiantly over town

Pp 208-9 = “Though Basilan Strait, which separates Mindanao from the not inconsiderable island of Basilan twenty miles to the Southward, British, German, French, and Japanese vessels passed in appreciable numbers. Whenever steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or  Nagasaki, visited Manila, and thence proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia, they passed through Basilan Straight into the Moro Gulf and on into the Celebes Sea. All such vessels came within a mile of Zamboanga  even if they did not stop there.  And yet, by the time our gunboat Manila was ordered to lend a hand toward the advancement of American interests thereabouts, the flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General’ Vicente Alvarez, had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months, and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and a wagging of the head.”

Source: Potter

November 14, 1899 

= An hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the Manila anchored at Malanipa.

November 15, 1899

      = Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan.  He was shot in Tetuan near the house of the late Vicente Atilano, Nov. 15, 1899.

      Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened.

      "---until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan." 

      At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto. (s. Navarro notes)

      = Suspected of being an ally already of the Americans, Isidoro Midel killed Calixto in an ambush.  Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel's wife's birthday party.  Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead.  In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief.  Midel himself maneuvered the "matrolladora" [man artillerio] which killed Calixto on the spot. (s. F. Enriquez)

      = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga's surrender by the Americans (Alvarez refused the bribe), Midel was also offered.

      Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto.  After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded the U.S.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done.  Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very "could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done"; town turned over by Midel to Americans.

      Midel had got the people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shot at Calixto who was instantly killed.

      Calixto's men scattered; and his guns captured. (s. Navarro inter.)

      = Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan.

      Major Calixto's murder a "great blow to Gen. Alvarez."

      Midel's men brought Calixto's head to the USS Manila to gain America's favor. (s. Arevalo)

      = Two gunboats lay anchor a half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor about 7 a.m., Wednesday, Nov. 15, 1899.

      The Zamboangueños were not disturbed by their arrival; probably because they assumed that an additional vessel meant "at most, only a somewhat more effective blockade."

      "The United States ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat of even less displacement than the Manila's.  Castine's captain was Commander Very; Manila's captain was Commander Nazro.

      Castine blockaded Zamboanga by the seaside.  (s. Potter)

      = First came USS Castine, then USS Manila, which was made of iron.  USS Pietrol took the 13 gunboats and one merchant boat, which were earlier captured by the Filipino insurgents, to Manila. (s. Navarro notes)

      November 15, 1899

 = ... “insurgents’ flag (`For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.’) snapped in the sea brezze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zambonaga.”

 = Datu Mandi busy interviewing President Miedel at Tetuan hinterland.

      Midel’s messengers rallied Americanistas, while insurgents’ flag raised over the fort’s ramparts.

      In the morning, Calixto, mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez, while inspecting the placement of the guns was shot dead by Midel, commander of Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano. (Midel got people together, claled Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan, and when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed. Calixto’s men scattered, and his guns captured. After the murder, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. (Midel’s men brought Calixto’s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans’ favor. s. Arevalo) He told Very that as soon as the US flag was seen flying over the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans.) 

 Nov. 16 (?), 1899

      = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death in order to prevent "greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos.  He left secretly for Basilan to "make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas." (s. Arevalo)

      = Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto's death, since this meant a fight between Filipinos.  Camins was secretary to Alvarez.

      Midel fled (?) to the American ship.  To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance (quite wrong:  Cuevas had refused Alvarez's invitation to join the revolution). (s. F. Enriquez)

 November 16, 1899

 = After six-seven months blockade by sea, the Aemricans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga.

November, 1899 (?) 

      = All such vessels ("steamers from Hongkong, Chefoo, Saigon, or Nagasaki, visited Manila, and then proceeded to Australia or New Zealand, to New Guinea or New Celedonia" ...) saw the "flag of the Filipino insurgents, commanded by `General' Vicente Alvarez," being flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months. (s. Potter) 

= warring of two insurgent factions conducted without regard to humanitarian sentiments or the laws of war.  Most lives taken through "some form of assassination and very few in open combat." (s. Taylor)

 Insurgents’ flag

      P 213 = “… Wednesday, November 15, 1899 … the insurgents’ flag snapped in the sea breeze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.”

Source: Potter

     Insurgents’ flag seen on ramparts of Fort Pilar/Midel’s messengers rallied Americanistas

      P 213 = Wednesday, November 15, 1899:

      Datu Mandi busy interviewing Presidente Miedel at Tetuan hinterland, and

Miedel’s messengers rallied Americanistas (adherents to cause of U.S. or opponents of the insurrectionary faction) while

Insurgents’ flag raised on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.

Source: Potter

Filipino flag flew defiantly six-seven months

      P 9 = Rear Admiral Potter in Sailing the Sulu Sea says Gen. Alvarez was a “recalcitrant bandit that not even the American able diplomat Ferguson could convince to surrender.”

      “For the flag of the Filipino insurgents had flown defiantly over the town for six or seven months and had flaunted in full sight of every passing steamer. The situation became a hissing and wagging of the head.”

Source: Arevalo

###   

Conditions after Spaniards fled

      p. 9 - 10 = Women were invited to bailes.

      Goy Bautista and Lorenzo murdered by Alvarez’s orders.  Innocent of crimes.

      Tribute levied upon Chinaman.  Barrios and company paid $5-T Mexican to save property.

      This state of affairs “existed until November” when Midel killed Calixto.

Source: Navarro interv. (using Pettit’s report as basis)

      Chinamen pay tribute to insurgents

      p. 553 = Tribute levied upon Chinamen Barrios and company alone --- $5,000 Mexican dollars to save their property.

      This state of affairs existed until November, 1899 when Isidoro Midel, former captain of Tetuan, killed Melanio Calixto.

Source: A.R. 1902-vol. ix, Sept. 16: Pettit

      Burning, sacking, etc. of Zamboanga

      p. 553 = Zamboanga was burnt except the two streets along the waterfront.

      Zamboanga church was sacked, and Luis Lim, a mestizo, paraded in the street in priest’s robes.

      People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry; women were invited to bailes and kept for days.

      Gay (?) Bautista, and Lorenzo were murdered through Alvarez’s orders; perfectly innocent.

Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

      Church of Zamboanga sacked, abuses, company of Voluntarios disintegrated

      “As in Cotabato, the withdrawal of the Spanish left anarchy reigning in Zamboanga.”  The organization of the Voluntarios disintegrated; the church sacked; people were robbed; “women were invited (?) to bailes [dances] and kept for days.”

      Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded inn the streets in the priest’s robes.”

Source: Mandate ... p. 25: Gowing

      Republic of Zamboanga organized

      After the withdrawal of the Spanish forces, the republic of Zamboanga was organized, “but debauchery and crime were the order of the day.”

      Anarchy reigned in Zamboanga after Spaniards left.

Source: p. 24: Gowing

      Town of Zamboanga sacked

      The church of Zamboanga was sacked; Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded streets in a priest’s robe.”

      People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry, etc. “There was chaos and confusion,” said Navarro, according to difunta Tia.

Source: Interv. Navarro, p. 9

###

      Schurman commission

      Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of the first Philippine commission, visited Sulu and succeeded interviewing the sultan regarding agreement for the renewal of Spain Treaty of 1878.

Source: Mandate ...p 30: Gowing

###

      Calixto murdered by Midel

      Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in ambush.

      Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel’s wife’s birthday party. Alvarez had headache and sent Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief.  Midel himself maneuvered the “matralladora” which killed Calixto on the spot.

Source: Interview, p.2: F. Enriquez

      Calixto murdered

      P 6 = The captured cannons were to be used against the Americans, so Midel, who was already an ally of the Americans, killed Calixto.

      Calixto was in Tetuan that fateful morning to inspect the placements of the captured guns in Tetuan. Calixto was shot in Tetuan, near the former house of the late Vicente Atilano, on November 15.

      Alvarez was likely in Mercedes, in his headquarters when this happened.

      P 9-10 “ … until November when Isidoro Midel, formerly captain of Tetuan, gathered the local people together, sent for Calixto, who is of Mercedes, an invitation to bring in arms and cannons to defend Tetuan.” Calisto brought them in and when he was near Tetuan Church, Midel staked out his guards and gave command of “fire” … Calixto killed, men and guns captured.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

      Calixto assassinated

      November 15, Calixto assassinated reportedly by orders of Isidoro Midel, early morning of this day, a Wednesday. Calixto was then mayor and right-hand commander of Alvarez. Isidoro Midel was commander of Tetuan.

      At this time, Midel was suspected of being secretly an ally of the Americans, to whom he relayed news of the death of Calixto.

Source: Interv.: Navarro

      Calixto murdered by Midel

      P 2 = Isidoro Midel, who had been in contact with the Americans, killed Calixto in an ambush.

      Accordingly, Gen. Alvarez was invited to Midel’s wife’s birthday party. Alvarez had an headache and sent  Calixto instead. In Tetuan, Midel ordered men to shoot, who refused because Calixto was their artillery chief. Midel himself maneuvered the “matrolladora” [man artillerio], which killed Calixto on the spot.

Source: Interv.: Enriquez, F.

###

      Murder of Calixto

      P 553 = Midel got people together; called Calixto at Mercedes to bring in arms to defend Tetuan; when Calixto was near the church of Tetuan, Midel ordered his men to shoot at Calixto who was killed.

      Calixto’s men scattered; and his guns captured.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

      Ambush of Calixto 

      P 9 = “It was not long, however, that envy and greed … among the followers of Gen. Alvarez.”

      Isidoro Midel instigated treachery, had Calixto murdered while on military inspection in Tetuan.

      Major Calixto’s death “a great blow to Gen. Alvarez.”

      Midel’s men brought Calixto’s head to the USS Manila to gain Americans’ favor.

Source: Arevalo

      Midel’s treachery

      P 6 = It was possible that since both Alvarez and Calixto were offered $75-T for Zamboanga’s surrender by the Americans (it was refused by Alvarez), Midel was also offered.

      Anyway, Midel was an ally of the Americans and ordered the murder of Calixto.

      P 10 = After the murder of Calixto, Midel boarded U.S. Castine and reported to Commander Very what he had done. Also, soon as U.S. flag was seen at the fort, Very “could land his Marines and occupy the place, which was done”; town turned over by Midel to Americans.

Source: Interv.:Navarro

      American allies

      Rajah Muddah Mandi and Isidoro Midel were the allies of the Americans against the Filipino insurgents led by Gen. Alvarez/

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Alvarez advised not to avenge Calixto’s murder

      Salvador Camins, among others, advised Alvarez not to avenge Calixto’s death, since this meant Filipinos against Filipinos.

      Camins, secretary to Alvarez.

      Midel already fled to American ship.

      To prevent bloody battle, Alvarez left for Basilan where together with Cuevas he continued resistance. [Likely wrong; Cuevas had refused Alvarez’s invitation to join the revolution.]

Source: Interv. p.3: Enriquez, F.

###

      No truth that Alvarez and Calixto were invited to birthday party

      p.6 = It isn’t true that Alvarez and Calixto swear invited to a birthday party in Tetuan on the fateful morning that Calixto was ordered shot by Midel; nor that Alvarez didn’t come because he had a headache: thus wasn’t also himself killed.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Alvarez left Zamboanga after Calixto’s murder

      P 9 = Friends and relatives advised Gen. Alvarez not to avenge Calixto’s death to prevent “greater bloody battles of Filipinos against Filipinos.”

      He left secretly for Basilan to “make common cause with Datu Pedro Cuevas.

Source: Interv. Ramon Alvarez: Arevalo

###

      Alvarez begins war on Mandi

      P 553 – Though Alvarez professed great friendship for Mandi, he began war on him. Mandi’s house were destroyed, and he fought Alvarez in Curuan.

      Mandi killed insurrectos and captured lot of women and children, whom he all returned to Zamboanga after treating them well.

      Alvarez observing the landing of Americans had ordered his men to kill Mandi --- but did not succeed, since Mandi did not give them an opportunity.

Source: AR 1902, vol. ix: Pettit

###

      Capture of Zamboanga

      November 16: after a 6-7 months blockade by sea and “stubborn resistance” by Gen. Alvarez and his men, the Americans, with Isidoro Midel and Rajamuddah Mandi and their men as allies, finally captured Zamboanga.

      There was no resistance from the side of the Filipinos since Alvarez decided it was futile shedding blood fighting brother Filipinos.

      Isidoro Midel and his men occupied an empty Fort ahead of the Americans, but later turned the Fort over to them who readily occupied it.

Source: Interv. Navarro

###

      Mandi’s men came late for the attack

      Moros under Mandi, who were American allies, came an hour latre for the attack.

      Mandi’s feudal levies came an hour behind schedule for the attack at the fort.

      Chief Yeoman Harrison “reported that a hundrd or so armed men were advancing from Mandi’s village.”

Source: p 218:Potter

      Moros in sham battle although `insurgents had fled’

      Although the last insurgents had fled into the forest, “the Moros gave themselves the pleasure of waging in sham battle.”

      “Their mouths dripped with the red juice of the areca nut.”

      During the sham battle, “their warlike behavior was made the more formidable by the circumstance that contrary to custom, they preserved absolute silence.”

Source: pp 218-19: Potter

 

Mandi’s  Moros not `dignified’

 After the sham battle, the Moros wondered about, “talking and laughing in their ordinary fashion.”

      The Moro “has none of the dignified reserve of the North American Indian.”

Source: p 219: Potter

###

 

Miedel attacks Fort Pilar

      P 217-18 = On November 16, 1899, Thursday, the Manila and Castine steamed within pistol-shot of the Fort of the Pillar.

      Miedel and his anti-insurectionary forces (Americanistas) attacked the Fort.

      Insurgents, about 3 to 4 hundred strong, escaped into the thickets northeastward between the pincers of Hough’s bluejackets and by Miedel’s irregulars.

      Few shots  fired by insurgents and a good many by “our advancing allies.” No casualties on either side.

      At the Fort’s ramp, Miedel himself waved American Stars & Stripes to greet the Manila and Castine.

      Retreating insurgents put the aduana (custom house) on fire but was put out by the Manila party. Also saved was the cuartel (barracks and city hall).

      Only one prisoner was caught by the author and brought to Calle Real.

      Prisoner-of-war turned out to be Mandi’s Moro who hid in the bamboos as look-out for insurgents.

Source: Potter

 

Miedel attacks fort

 P 215 = Just after sunrise, Thursday, November 16,1899, Miedel and his anti-insurrectionary forces charged across the rice fields, with American flag at the head, to assist the Americans in taking Zamboanga.

Source: Potter

 

Alvarez’s insurgents flee fort and escape

      P 215 =  “… under the double danger of our landing and of the Americanistas’ charge, [the insurgents] began to rush out of the galley port of the fort and even to drop from its sixteen-foot walls.”

      Insurgents about three or four hundred strong, “ran across the esplanade, dodged into the alleys of the town, and reached the thickets which then came close to the northeast side of Zamboanga.”

Source: Potter

###

 

U.S. flag raised over Fort by Miedel

      P 216 = “The Americanistas swarmed into the fort shouting and brandishing their weapons. The bearer of the American flag – I think it was Miedel himself – ran up the ramp to the top of the seaward wall … waving the Stars & Stripes in greeting to the Manila and Castine.”

      U.S. occupation day

      P 553 = On November 16, 1899 was occupation day.

      Alvarez and his “gang had left for parts unknown.”

Source: AR 1902, vol ix: Pettit

###

      Cotabato insurgents beheaded

 p 451 = Dissatisfied people (Filipino, Moro and Chinese) tired of excessive taxation and insurgents’ cruelty, beheaded insurgent agents.

 A new government formed which informed the U.S. authorities they were ready to receive U.S. troops and fly to U.S. flag in about  September, though info was received in Manila in November 20, 1899.

Source: Taylor 

###

      U.S. Manila left for Cotabato

 P 229 = Manila left Zamboanga for Cotabato December 10, 1899, Sunday evening.

Source: Potter

(continued ... )    

 

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  • : antoniofermin's name
  • : See Deep South through folktales and literature, see the clash between Christians and Moros, see its history through tradition and myths, see Zambanga's mestizos as they fought against their Spanish colonizers, see how the Zamboanguenos sieze the strongest Spanish fort in the Visayas and Mindanao, see the new Imperialist U.S.A. trample the Zamboanga revolutionarios by starving the people, see the horror and terror of the dictator Marcos's martial law, & see ethnic cleansing in the evil regime.
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